Ap Lang 2006 Argument Essay Outline

To score an 8 on the AP English Argument FRQ question, the CollegeBoard outlines that students need to write an essay that effectively argues a position, uses appropriate and convincing evidence, and showcases a wide range of the elements of writing. Essays that score a 9 do all of that and, additionally, demonstrate sophistication in their argument.

An essay that does all of that is an essay that is well constructed. Such an essay needs a solid framework and excellent support. To construct an essay like that, it is important to have a clear idea of what you are being asked, to not waffle, to spend time and care with your thesis and outline, and to support every claim you make.

The best way to write an AP English FRQ that does all of that is to understand what you are going to see on the AP English Language test.

What You are Going to See on the AP English Argument FRQ

The AP English argument FRQ is the most straightforward of the AP English FRQs because it is the most like essays you are already used to writing. It’s exciting to have free reign and make your own argument, unrestrained from rhetorical analysis devices or documents. But, like most AP writing, it also can be a little overwhelming. There’s nothing to read to provide evidence for you or to help you form an argument. Whether you’re feeling excited or overwhelmed by the AP writing argument FRQ, being strategic about forming your thesis, crafting a strong, chronological argument, and utilizing good, supportive evidence will lead to a better overall essay response.

Determine the Question

The first question to ask yourself is what am I being asked to do? Look for keywords and phrases that will answer that question.

Here’s an example from the 2016 AP English Language argument FRQ.

Though there are just two short paragraphs, there is a lot of room for confusion here. In this case, “Write an essay that argues your position on the extent to which Wilde’s claims are valid” is the key sentence you are looking for. In 2016, AP English Language test takers were asked to argue either for, or against, the idea that disobedience is the virtue through which progress is possible.

If you cannot determine what the question is, go back and reread the prompt. Knowing the question you are answering is the most important part of AP writing. You will not be able to answer the question effectively if you aren’t certain what the question is. Pick out a specific sentence or two to determine the question, and thereby ensure that you aren’t just writing an essay that responds to the general sense of the prompt.

Pick an Opinion and Stick to it

The next step is both simple and difficult. Identify your own opinion on the subject.

But remember — the AP argument FRQ is designed to test how well you can craft an argument. Questions like the 2016 question seem so daunting, because how one feels about disobedience has ramifications. It is a bigger question than students are used to encountering on an AP test.

But there is no right or wrong answer for this AP English FRQ. And whatever argument you choose will not come back later in the exam or in your final grade in the class. This is not to say that you shouldn’t believe in what you are writing. Only that you should remember that both sides are arguable, pick one, and stick to it. Don’t waffle.

Craft a Thesis Statement

The thesis statement should be both simple and elegant. It should encompass your entire essay in just one sentence. So, for the 2016 argument FRQ:

Good thesis: As Wilde claims, disobedience is a valuable human trait without which progress could not be made because, in situations like the American Revolution, it is only deviance from the norm that can change the norm.

This thesis breaks down a) that the author is claiming to agree with Wilde, b) that the author will support that claim with examples from the American Revolution, and c) that the author will continually return to the idea that only deviance from the norm can change the norm.

Not a Good thesis: Disobedience is a good trait for humans, because historically, disobedient men and women made history.

This thesis doesn’t really answer the question. It says that disobedience is good but doesn’t mention Wilde. It alludes to the idea that disobedient men and women made history but doesn’t mention progress. Plenty of people, like Franz Ferdinand, made history without progressing the human race. This thesis isn’t specific and doesn’t give you a clear idea of what the author will be saying next.

See the difference?

After you’ve determined your thesis, use it as a jumping point to sketch a quick outline. Then, follow your outline, bringing in your own concrete examples and evidence. Doing so will improve your AP writing.

Craft a Chronological Argument

A good argument builds as you move through the essay. It does not simply repeat the same points. Instead, the different points of the argument build off one another and work together to advance the author’s point.

Let’s look at the 2014 AP English argument FRQ for an example.

In this case, students are being asked to both define creativity and to argue for, or against, the creation of a class in creativity.

All students are likely to have their own definitions of creativity and their own opinions about a creativity class. For the purposes of example, let’s use Steve Jobs’ definition of creativity and quickly outline an argument for the creation of a class in creativity.

Steve Jobs said, “Creativity is just connecting things. When you ask creative people how they did something, they feel a little guilty because they didn’t really do it, they just saw something. It seemed obvious to them after a while.” Jobs sees creativity not as the art of making something completely new from scratch, but instead the art of connecting dots differently.

A chronological argument builds off itself. So, in this question’s case, an outline would look something like this:

  1. Creativity is best thought of as making connections.
  2. Making connections is a type of thinking that can be taught.
  3. Making connections is best taught in school, as opposed to outside of it.

First, a student would have to argue why creativity is best thought of as making connections. The second point, that making connections is a type of thinking that can be taught, cannot be proven until the first point has been sufficiently supported. And the final point, that this is a skill that is best taught in school, cannot be made without the other two. The points of the argument cannot be moved around, changed, or removed. This shows the argument is chronological and has built on itself.

When you sketch your outline, quickly ask yourself if the outline would make just as much sense if you rearranged it. If the answer is no, start writing your essay. If the answer is yes, try to structure your argument so that your points build off one another.

Support Your Claims

All arguments need evidence. This is the proof you need to support your thesis. And in the case of the AP English argument FRQ, the evidence all comes from you. What exactly that evidence is will vary from question to question and from student to student. But make sure that every point you make is supported by evidence.

Here’s some good news — you already know quite a bit about effective evidence from what you have learned in AP English about rhetorical devices. Your main purpose in this essay is to persuade. What have you learned in class about effective ways to persuade? What rhetorical devices can you utilize? Try to pick the best devices to support your argument that you can.

Here are some examples of supportive and non-supportive evidence that students could use to support their claims.

The 2015 AP English language argument FRQ asked students to argue what the function of polite speech in a culture they are familiar with.

Supportive evidence: Polite speech is useful for conveying tone, especially in the world of the Internet. A great example of this need is email. Because emails are virtual communications, they are completely stripped of the context that non-verbal cues, like body language, eye contact, and physical touch, can provide. Polite, formal speech conveys that the sender of the email respects the receiver. Phrases like “How are you?” help convey friendliness between e-mailers. Taking the time to ensure an email sounds friendly can, for example, help ease the sting of a virtual scolding from a boss to a subordinate. As more communication becomes virtual, polite speech is more important than ever to provide context.

In this paragraph, the student chooses to discuss the role of polite speech in the culture of the Internet. The student claims that polite speech is necessary to convey tone in communication without context and uses emails as a frame. The student uses examples of situations where email and polite speech are directly involved to support her claims. Every one of the claims is followed up with an example.

Non-supportive evidence: Polite speech is useful for conveying tone, especially in the world of the Internet. In forums, people are never polite, and it is bad for discourse, which is bad for democracy. The world would be a much better place if when people online disagreed with one another, they were polite instead of angry and ready to form a new subreddit at any time. When people on the Internet aren’t polite, they don’t worry about their tone at all, and it offends people. The lack of polite speech makes the Internet a hostile place.

In this paragraph, the student chooses to discuss the role of polite speech in the culture of the Internet. However, the student does not utilize supportive evidence to do so. The paragraph is full of claims, like that the world would be better if people on the Internet were polite, but does not provide a concrete example to anchor the claim. Additionally, the paragraph does not support the idea that polite speech conveys tone on the Internet because it primarily focuses on the lack of polite speech on some parts of the Internet.

There is so much variance in prompts and students’ prior knowledge; it’s impossible to provide a checklist of what makes evidence supportive. But a good trick to decide if you’ve supported your claims well enough is to talk to yourself. No really, it’s a good idea.

Picture yourself discussing your essay with someone. Imagine that this person disagrees with everything that you say. Every time you make a claim, like that it’s important to be polite in an email, your imaginary person shakes their head and tell you no. How would you try to convince them? What examples would you use? Make sure that for each opinion you put forward; you have provided an answer to someone who would disagree with you.

The evidence is an important part of your essay. If your outline and your argument are a framework, your evidence is the brick and mortar. A house without brick and mortar won’t fall, but it won’t be a very nice house to inhabit. Tie every claim you make to a piece of evidence to ensure the best essay possible.

To Sum up

The AP English argument FRQ varies quite a bit. But it is ultimately about how well you can put forth an argument. So, don’t be afraid to spend some time crafting that argument. Pick a clear position that can offer no confusion, write a clear and direct thesis statement, and make an argument that has to be in the order you write it. Support yourself with concrete, specific evidence and examples. But most of all, have fun. This essay is the one you should be looking forward to, where you have the freest rein. Enjoy it and earn yourself a 9.

Do the examples shown make sense to you? Can you picture yourself moving through the AP writing argument FRQ with ease now?

Test yourself and write a practice essay response. Here are tips on how to score your own AP English Practice Essay.

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Want to take your test prep to the next level? Use the resources below to analyze sample student essays, review scoring rubrics, take full-length multiple choice tests, and more!



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Overview of the Test

  • Summit Prep Test Overview: This is a 2-page document tailored to Summit Prep students. It includes a high-level description of the components of the test and reflections from Summit Prep seniors about preparing for the test.
  • Official AP Test Overview: This is an official 2-page CollegeBoard overview that includes course content, skills, and components of the AP test. 
  • College Credit Check:See which colleges offer credit for getting a 3, 4, or 5 on an AP exam. You can also use this link to send your AP scores to a college, and search for college scholarships. 
  • CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING with the Summit Prep Test Scavenger Hunt! This activity is an interactive way to explore the connections between the cog skills and projects we will be doing in class and the various components of the AP test. If you complete it successfully, you will have a clear sense of what each part of the AP test is meant to assess and which projects are aligned with which parts of the exam. 


Scoring Guides and Rubrics

  • Overall Scoring and Scaling Guide: While it's impossible to predict with total accuracy what your score might be on an AP exam, you can use this document to convert your raw multiple choice score (total # of questions you got right) to a scaled score. You can then look at a table that shows you what your 1-5 overall test score might be depending on the quality of essays that you wrote. 
  • Argumentative Essay Rubric Checklist: Check off the boxes that best represent each component of your essay to predict if you wrote a 1-4, 5-7, or 8-9 essay. 
  • Rhetorical Analysis Essay Rubric Checklist. Check off the boxes that best represent each component of your essay to predict if you wrote a 1-4, 5-7, or 8-9 essay. 
  • Synthesis Essay Rubric Checklist. Check off the boxes that best represent each component of your essay to predict if you wrote a 1-4, 5-7, or 8-9 essay. 

Multiple Choice: Strategies

  • Tips for the Multiple Choice Test (PPT): This powerpoint deck includes full sentences with LOTS of information about how to avoid common mistakes, reduce testing anxiety, and focus on process of elimination. If you are a visual learner who likes to chunk things in to small pieces, this is an excellent starting resource. 
  • Multiple Choice Test Taking Strategies (PDF): This 4-page document is more text-heavy, but it outlines clear "phases" (or pass-throughs) that you can practice to develop confidence in your answer choices. It comes from a teacher whose resources I really respect.
  • Advice for Success on the AP English Language Exam: Multiple Choice(PDF): This 3-page document is a nice companion to the one above. It's from the same teacher, and it outlines not only the types of multiple choice questions you might see (and which are the hardest), but also answers the question, "How many questions can I get wrong and still pass the test?"
  • Multiple Choice Overview (Video): If neither of the options works for you, you can watch a semi-interesting (yet informative!) video that outlines similar information as the sources above but with text, visuals, and a speaker.
  • Multiple Choice Question Stems. Read through this list of common sentence starters to see all the various types of questions you are going to see on the multiple choice test. 

Multiple Choice: Practice

Argumentative Essay: Strategies

  • Strategies for Mastering the Persuasive Essay. This is an extensive 13-page PDF with strategies, sample outlines, and several years' worth of argumentative prompts from real AP exams. 
  • Graphic Organizer: Argumentative Idea Bank. One of the best ways to prepare for an open-ended argument is to brainstorm and then select your best ideas to write about. They should come from a wide range of topics/areas of interest so as to fit as many topics as you might see. This will also help you prep for the SAT essay!

Argumentative Essay: Practice

Argumentative Essay: Sample Student Responses

Rhetorical Analysis Essay: Strategies

Rhetorical Analysis Essay: Practice

Rhetorical Analysis Essay: Sample Student Responses

Synthesis Essay: Strategies

  • Synthesis Essay Tips. This 2-page PDF gives you a high-level, 8-step process for reading the synthesis prompt and sources, outlining your essay, and writing your response. 

Synthesis Essay: Practice

  • 2015 Synthesis Essay Prompt. You will synthesize sources to take a position on whether or not schools should adopt an honor code.
  • 2014 Synthesis Essay Prompt. You will synthesize sources to take a position on whether or not college is worth the cost.
  • 2013 Synthesis Essay Prompt. You will synthesize sources in order to examine the factors a group or agency should consider in memorializing an event or person and in creating a monument.
  • 2008 Synthesis Essay Prompt. You will synthesize sources to take a position on the key issues leaders should consider when making policies that affect global warming.

Synthesis Essay: Sample Student Responses

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