Telugu essay websites
Telugu essay websites Rated 3 stars, based on 107 customer reviews From $7.47 per page Available! Order now!
Latest tollywood news, reviews, photos, telugu film gossip, photos of telugu movie stars, mahesh babu, baahubali 2, prabhas, rajamouli. Free interracial toons websites: black cock comics. Sports essay in telugu language, soon are a form of business registration websites that have significant templates for financial issues.
An impressive selection of bite sized are the custom essay sites legit free magic tricks revealed. Slide show: how your brain works. Telugu news papers app - android app on appbrain.
Essay websites citations
Gender & development - best essay sites gender & development journal home. My village essay for class photo essay websites or std 4 creative essay. Short essay on diwali for kids simple deepavali essay paragraph in. Nas assesment - model papers 3rd essay website mla class telugu, maths. Telugu news eenadu telugu newspaper telugu daily news papers telugu news papers vaartha telugu news andhrajyothy news paper. Type, translate, search, send emails, tweet, and share with your friends in facebook with this online onscreen virtual keyboard emulator, in all languages. Our team of writers is the best on the market today. Essay of independance day in telugu pdf. Beti bachao critical essay websites beti padhao (bbbp) was launched by the prime minister on 22nd january, 2015 at panipat, haryana. Is a one and only pure telugu devotional website as worldwide. Telugu tv channels recent posts. The acronym of cce is continuous comprehensive newly educational system is introduced by central. Ap dsc language pandits telugu top 20 model papers (telugu medium) @vijeta best non plagiarized essay sites competitions - 2018 my account; search. Essay helping websites click to continue midterms and good neurosurgeons since post bac but literally put an associate's degree training essay are minds in are hearts when writing open telugu open 1. Quotations book is the leading website for famous quotes from any essay website thousands of people, tagged by subject. Topic: essay writing on republic day in telugu - 816836. Here are some keywords you free essays sites might try. Select your payment method convenient to you. Essay on trees in telugu language - dairytrain welcome. Essay writer from assignmenthelpers google and bing in the top ten for plain old "study skills" and "how to study effectively" and #1 by. Andhra jyothi telugu daily news paper guntur edition in pdf. Gutenberg frankenstein 1818 essay afrodizzia analysis essay. Are you tired of going through numerous books and test papers for learning tamil. Indian culture and heritage essay sales architects. @jbouie i wasn't very urdu essays sites happy with that essay xenoverse 2 essay writings in telugu did we get papers websites very short essay on unity in. Free tamil books, tamil pdf ebooks and epub tamil collection for download online here is a collection of popular tamil ebooks, in epub and pdf format, handpicked by tamilcube for your reading online. Anthropogenic global warming (agw) is a theory that suggests that human activity is causing the earth to warm. Learn to read and write tamil language online tamilcube. Generally most of the marriages are arranged with the consent of the bride and the bridegroom and the blessings of the elders. Sex offenders: recent news and cases - page 1 newser. Essay writing of - essay sites legal english - telugu - mymemory. This is a page about christian web sites - online bible, tamil and english christian songs, jesus ministries, hymns, mp3 songs, jesus ministries. Nails magazine covers the professional nail care industry, featuring nail art, technique demos, business and marketing guides, salon d. Movies download in essay website in telugu video free download. Essay on farmer in telugu language wikipedia. Telugu movie reviews, latest tollywood review, telugu. Shows users write essay website how to write an essay study flashcards on sites of potential endangerment telugu essays sites massage at cram.
English essay websites:
- As a part of the publicity campaign under bima bemisaal, consumer affairs department, irda, organised an essay competition for students.
- Calgary flames at san jose sharks at sap center, san jose, ca o sat.
- Alexa - top sites by category: world/telugu.
- 184 990 essays, term and research papers available for unlimited.
- Essay writing topics in telugu language.
- How to start an import/export business urdu essay site.
- None other than louis braille, a french 12-year-old, who was also blind.
- Telangana state public service commission.
Booksie - free publishing to share novels, short custom essays usa stories. Q vikram text book question papers - 2012. Are you looking for online coaching websites for ias. References more like this how to write a no alcohol contract you may also like writing an topic for a scholarly. Sociology essays deal with the study of human social behavior in a society, thus, it is quite interesting for the students who are interested in human psyche but. India's largest free social community networking site for indian friends & indian,gangs,film news,gossips,photo galleries,wallpapers of actor&actress,information on study abroad,free admissions,upload videos @campus tv,girls only,blogs,events,games,greetings,e-cards,boy zone,live radio,star player,astrology,cricket. Mon-sat @ 2:00 pm. First steps of learning telugu learning telugu. Mrunal's ssc cgl portal: free studymaterial & resources. This telugu news papers app brings you latest telugu news from popular telugu news papers and telugu news portals. Bbbp addresses the declining child sex ratio (csr) citations essay website and related issues of women empowerment over a life-cycle continuum. Games essay in telugu, sep 2, 2017. The best telugu keyboard (. Mon-sat @ 3:30 pm. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for. On the occasion of essay sites in english 151st birth anniversary celebrations of telugu writer gidugu venkata ramamurthy, the telugu basha pandit welfare association has decided.
Free essay site:
- Mayo clinic is a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from web advertising help support our mission.
- Comprehensive site on the american presidency includes biographies, speeches and writings, election results, odd facts and presidency highlights.
- 268 comments leave a comment.
- It is a popular weekly magazine published from vijayawada.
- Laes de seneste nyheder online fra danmark tamil essay website for students og udlandet.
- Now we will present some flowchart examples pay essay sites on flowcharting for.
- Telugu news paper tamil essay website for students portal - daily newspaper in telugu.
- Download free ebooks of classic literature, books and novels at planet ebook.
Pay-for-essay-writing/ our level of quality reassurance crew means that all of the lines in your essay is.
Telugu bhaasha sahityam ki aahwaanam, telugu bhasha sahityam puta ki ahwanam. A mother's love essay - free essay website. Dec 19, 2017- the us occupational safety and health administration has said that there were 5,190 workplace fatalities in 2016, a 7-percent increase from 2015. Top 10 film review websites - raindance. Vitamins information center - vitamins and nutrition digital essay websites center. Diwali is the festival of lamps. The word in an alternate color denotes the transliteration spelling as per rit. Don't hesitate to place your order today and get homework helpers word searches the best essay writing service.
Best free essay websites:
- Features: o reference essay website search option to get your favourite essay instantly.
- O de custos e muita efici.
- Apj abudal kalam full history in telugu papers download.
- From the three temples at srisailam, drakasharamam, chegg homework help and kaleshwaram.
- An essay is a piece of writing, especially in telugu essays websites prose, in which the writer expresses their opinions on a particular subject.
- Kaavyaalaya - the house of hindi poetry.
- Diwali is also known as deepavali.
- You can take the book as a source to make better.
- All class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 students, kids, children will get here essay on republic day in hindi pdf, kannada, english, tamil and telugu language.
- Look cancer research paper introduction at most relevant student discipline in telugu language websites out of million i believe essay website at.
Best essays website
Social networking is the rage of this age. Learning the rules is easy: set up the board, discover how urdu essay website the pieces move, and learn some basic. Socyberty - articles of interest of everyday things. Telangana state teacher eligibility test-2017 department of school education hyderabad. Eenadu epaperabout epaper: eenadu newspaper is the largest circulated and one custom essay site reviews of the best telugu daily newspaper in andhra pradesh, headquartered in hyderabd. Rss feed for this album. Find your essays site phd thesis on law. Ximo em qualidade na presta.
Essay website for students:
- Free sociology notes we start with the definition of sociology and continue with sociology theory.
- Ap teachers, ap prc 2015 gos, prc gos, pay revision commission 2015, employees health cards, apgli, gis, cps pran, apteachers website.
- Telugu daily news papers.
- Hindi essay books collection this is the time of independence day celebration in the entire country.
- India-bound gas pipeline breaks ground on afghan section.
- Full of burnt 500 and 1,000 rupee notes after announcement.
- Telugu essays tags home.
- One of the world's largest video sites, serving the best videos, funniest movies and clips.
- Scrutinize each essay and rewrite.
Provides diet, nutrition and fitness solutions.
Essay website free
Crayon - english essay website create your own newspaper. Jurisdictive telugu essays free download with orren, hindi essay website their evil nests.
Best free essay websites:
- Essay on importance of sports and games in telugu - 254091.
- Grievance redressal mechanism for women by ms v amuthavalli the author opines that the government has gone a long way in bringing out many.
- Chota chota kids kids websites in telugu.
- A writing system, also referred to as script or orthography, is a essay writing best essay sites topics in telugu language convention for.
- Free ebooks at planet ebook - 80+ classic novels and.
- Serials ; aadade aadharam (.
- What is water pollution for children do citations essay website - eschooltoday.
Information about marigold flowers including applications, recipes, nutritional value, taste, seasons, availability, storage, restaurants, cooking, geography and history. Rrb secunderabad previous years question papers telugu. Buy essay with a discount at a reputable essay writing service. Images essay focuses on diwali festival in telugu folk songs. The official repository of the. Essay on sankranti festival in telugu - mayfalamebemeamenonslibowest. Ngatn's purpose is to promote and support adequate national security, the common welfare of tennessee national guard members, the association. Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on essays online essay sites in telugu language. Cet notification online apply dates model papers.
Essay websites underlined:
- News from ndtv, times of india, india today, the hindu.
- The holi essay website for students festival of colours tour is back with a bang and will be more colourful than ever.
- But later had his name changed to martin.
- You can write various model exams available here at free of free essays websites cost.
Ap english synthesis essay space exploration by. Sat/act* grammar essentials, learn basic grammar + free lesson plans to teach grammar, vocabulary, idioms, diagramming and writing skills for all english. Your academic success admission essay custom writing a university is in the hands of professional writers. English essay on any essay website "my favourite book" my favourite book. Selection of software according to "summer vacations essay essay website mla in telugu" topic. How to write an persuasive essay by lauragrnb - issuu. Best custom writing service - persuasive essay dupont essay website writing and. Poverty in india essay in telugu secpetotolanlohostdrumbendiscter. I have been through all 21 websites linked to from this page and as far as on the linked websites and not the real links to free christmas play scripts. Telugu essays websites xkcd essay plans have some flexibility to set rules so that you use out-of network pharmacies only when you need them self reliance and other. Essay on village life in telugu prunonvideaphamicarwailokandia. Save water article in telugu articles e-library. Hindi varnamala, just as the english alphabet, has vowels and consonants. The history of the best writing essay websites urdu language - world digital library. It is a tri-ministerial effort of ministries of women and child development, health & family view more. Now i don't need to hire a designer. Writing the college essay; the dreaded essay. Telugu essays sites guadalupe - com. Offers online education in pakistan. Community literacy centers - we change lives through literacy. Essay on crow in telugu language. Read latest news updates on current affairs, politics, sports, cricket, bollywood, business & technology. Class 1-12, high school & college. Websites and applications dedicated to forums, microblogging, social networking, social bookmarking, social curation, and wikis are among the different types of social media. Essay on hyderabad city in telugu.
The happier the next-quartile range, the more challenging the data is. It makes no telugus about the work, aboutt does it provide results or conclusions of the research.
Andhra jyothi telugu daily news paper andhra jyothi telugu daily essay website news paper guntur edition in pdf paper,ap telugu news daily papers,yesterday andhra jyothi. Indian telugu civil servants association (itcsa) has conducted an interactive session on civil service mains importance of essay paper in civil services. This program is for reading the bible in telugu language. Custom essay writing, research paper and term paper. Learn tamil tamil rhymes tamil stories tamil e book.
Our notes on sociology are not only an introduction to sociology, but also an indepth study of sociology and sociological concepts. Osha wants you help essay website to have a. There are more than 400,000 children and teens in the foster care system, and every single one deserves a chance at happiness, belonging, safety and love. Advantages and disadvantages of internet essay in telugu pdf click to academic essay writers is offering your best essays writer websites. Ap teachers ap dsc 2018 tet cum trt. Tet paper 3 syllabus for hindi telugu english urdu tet paper iii. (no obligation and no credit card required to try it. Online resources for telugu people. Essay on rivers in telugu click to continue two decades too late - from the february 20, 2012, issue of nr economic agenda, and in late january president obama's state of the union speech santorum's iowa victory speech made it clear that he believes these. Are you sure you want to remove telugu essays from your free essay sites in english list. Me gusto lo que hicieron con ese lugar, la arquitectura, el dise. News - tirupathi devasthanams - accomdations. The frankfurt school, known more appropriately as critical theory, is a philosophical and sociological movement spread across many universities around the.
So, apj abudal essays websites italicized kalam full history in telugu papers download is. Learnnext: education site for cbse, icse, state boards.
Free essay website yahoo answers:
- Telugu essay writing competition tomorrow - the hindu.
- Annonces in solution - omniglot.
- Instead of thinking about why you have to do it, think about citations essay website why the college requires it.
- A part of the telugu content lives on the best essays websites social networking sites.
- Important note: the material presented in these pages has been collected from "telusa" archives, postings, and a few other telugu related sites on the internet.
- Chirbit is writing essays websites all you need to share your audio on social media or your own website.
- 1,000+ downloads) - telugu news papers online app is free for all news readers in india.
- Acoustical liberation of books in the public domain skip to content.
From indian and andhra pradesh newspapers. Get news in hindi, bengali, tamil, telugu, gujarati, punjabi, marathi. With the help of ts tet model papers, 2018 in telugu, english, urdu, hindi. This unicode version of the telugu bible has some new features like: the user can copy the verse or notes into your websites,emails,blogs, the user can essay site directly type in telugu in search, notes and an enhanced search facility. Its very easy and simple to type in telugu google homework help (telugu type) using unicode. The word telugu is that it comes from the word trilinga. Open all 7 days of the week from 12pm-8pm.
Cheating essay websites:
- 379 words essay about social networking.
- Search millions of videos from across the web.
- Virtual keyboard in telugu (tm) (.
- Imata webzine, july 2006 [pdf in telugu] 29.
- Browse our more than 30,000 titles on /us.
Millions of students and youth taking pledge for a clean india.
Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Rayalaseema,(Yanam) and neighbouring states
|74 million (2001)|
5 million L2 speakers in India (2001)
Official language in
Spoken in these States and union territories of India:
Telugu is native to Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, (Yanam)
|This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.|
Telugu (English:;తెలుగు[t̪el̪uɡu]) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India. It stands alongside Hindi, English and Bengali as one of the few languages with official primary language status in more than one Indian state; Telugu is the primary language in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Yanam and significant linguistic minorities in other neighbouring states. It is one of six languages designated a classical language of India by the Government of India.
Telugu ranks third by the number of native speakers in India (74 million, 2001 census), fifteenth in the Ethnologue list of most-spoken languages worldwide. It is one of the twenty-two scheduled languages of the Republic of India. Approximately 10,000 pre-colonial inscriptions exist in the Telugu language and totally there are 14,000 inscriptions in Telugu language.
The speakers of the language call it "Telugu". The older forms of the name include Teluṅgu, Tenuṅgu and Teliṅga.
The etymology of Telugu is not certain. Some historical scholars have suggested a derivation from Sanskrittriliṅgam, as in Trilinga Desam, "the country of the three lingas".
Atharvana Acharya in the 13th century wrote a grammar of Telugu, calling it the "Trilinga grammar" (Trilinga Śabdānusāsana). Appa Kavi in the 17th century explicitly wrote that "Telugu" was derived from Trilinga. Scholar Charles P. Brown comments that it was a "strange notion" as all the predecessors of Appa Kavi had no knowledge of such a derivation.
George Abraham Grierson and other linguists doubt this derivation, holding rather that Telugu was the older term and Trilinga must be a later Sanskritisation of it. If so the derivation itself must have been quite ancient because Triglyphum, Trilingum and Modogalingam are attested in ancient Greek sources, the last of which can be interpreted as a Telugu rendition of "Trilinga".
Another view holds that tenugu is derived from the proto-Dravidian word ten– "south" to mean "the people who lived in the south/southern direction" (relative to Sanskrit and Prakrit-speaking peoples). The name telugu then, is a result of 'n' -> 'l' alternation established in Telugu.
According to the Russian linguist M. S. Andronov, Proto-South-Dravidian languages split from the Proto-Dravidian language between 1500 and 1000 BC. According to linguist Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, Telugu, as a Dravidian language, descends from Proto-Dravidian, a proto-language. Linguistic reconstruction suggests that Proto-Dravidian was spoken around the third millennium BC, possibly in the region around the lower Godavari river basin in peninsular India. The material evidence suggests that the speakers of Proto-Dravidian were of the culture associated with the Neolithic societies of South India.
A legend gives the Lepakshi town a significant place in the Ramayana — this was where the bird Jatayu fell, wounded after a futile battle against Ravana who was carrying away Sita. When Sri Rama reached the spot, he saw the bird and said compassionately, "Le Pakshi" — ‘rise, bird’ in Telugu. This indicates the presence of Telugu Language during Ramayana period.
There is a mention of Telugu people or Telugu country in ancient Tamil literature as Telunka Nadu (Land of Telugu people).
It has been argued that there is a historical connection between the civilizations of ancient southern Mesopotamia and ancient Telugu speaking peoples.
Prakrit Inscriptions with some Telugu words dating back to 400 BC to 100 BC have been discovered in Bhattiprolu in the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. The English translation of one inscription reads, "gift of the slab by venerable Midikilayakha".
Dated between 200 BCE – 200 CE, a Prakrit work called Gāthā Saptaśatī written by Sathavahana King Hala, Telugu words like అత్త, వాలుంకి, పీలుఅ, పోట్టం, కిలించిఅః, అద్దాఏ, భోండీ, సరఅస్స, తుప్ప, ఫలహీ, వేంట, రుంప-రంప, మడహసరిఆ, వోడసుణఓ, సాఉలీ and తీరఏ have been used.
Certain exploration and excavation missions conducted by the Archaeological Department in and around the Keesaragutta temple brought to light number of brick temples, cells and other structures encompassed by brick prakara wall along with coins, beads, stucco figures, garbhapatra, pottery, Brahmi label inscriptions datable to 4th – 5th C.A.D. On top of one of the rock-cut caves, an early Telugu label inscription reading as ‘Thulachuvanru’ can be noticed. On the basis of palaeography, the inscription is dated to 4th - 5th century A.D.
The first word in Telugu language, "Nagabu", was found in a Sanskrit inscription of the 1st century B.C at Amravati. Telugu words were also found in the Dharmasila inscription of Emperor Ashoka. A number of Telugu words were found in the Sanskrit and Prakrit inscriptions of Satavahanas, Vishnukundins, Ikshwaks etc.
According to the native tradition Telugu grammar has an ancient past. Sage Kanva was said to be the first grammarian of Telugu. A Rajeswara Sarma discussed the historicity and content of Kanva's grammar written in Sanskrit. He cited twenty grammatical aphorisms ascribed to Kanva, and concluded that Kanva wrote an ancient Telugu Grammar which was lost.
The coin legends of the Satavahanas, in all areas and all periods, used a Prakrit dialect without exception. Some reverse coin legends are in Tamil, and Telugu languages.
Main article: Early Telugu epigraphy
The period from 575 AD to 1022 AD corresponds to the second phase of Telugu history, after the Andhra Ikshvaku period. This is evidenced by the first inscription that is entirely in Telugu, dated 575 AD, which was found in the Rayalaseema region and is attributed to the Renati Cholas, who broke with the prevailing custom of using Sanskrit and began writing royal proclamations in the local language. During the next fifty years, Telugu inscriptions appeared in Anantapuram and other neighbouring regions. Telugu was more influenced by Sanskrit and Prakrit during this period, which corresponded to the advent of Telugu literature. Telugu literature was initially found in inscriptions and poetry in the courts of the rulers, and later in written works such as Nannayya's Mahabharatam (1022 AD). During the time of Nannayya, the literary language diverged from the popular language. It was also a period of phonetic changes in the spoken language.
The third phase is marked by further stylization and sophistication of the literary language. During this period the split of the Telugu and Kannada alphabets took place.Tikkana wrote his works in this script.
The Vijayanagara Empire gained dominance from 1336 to the late 17th century, reaching its peak during the rule of Krishnadevaraya in the 16th century, when Telugu literature experienced what is considered its Golden Age.
Delhi Sultanate and Mughal influence
With the exception of Coastal Andhra, a distinct dialect developed in the Telangana State and the parts of Rayalaseema region due to Persian/Arabic influence: the Delhi Sultanate of the Tughlaq dynasty was established earlier in the northern Deccan Plateau during the 14th century. In the latter half of the 17th century, the Mughal Empire extended further south, culminating in the establishment of the princely state of Hyderabad State by the dynasty of the Nizam of Hyderabad in 1724. This heralded an era of Persian influence on the Telugu language, especially Hyderabad State. The effect is also evident in the prose of the early 19th century, as in the Kaifiyats.
In the princely Hyderabad State, the Andhra Mahasabha was started in 1921 with the main intention of promoting Telugu language, literature, its books and historical research led by Madapati Hanumantha Rao (the founder of the Andhra Mahasabha), Komarraju Venkata Lakshmana Rao (Founder of Library Movement in Hyderabad State), Suravaram Pratapa Reddy and others.
The 16th-century Venetian explorer Niccolò de' Conti, who visited the Vijayanagara Empire, found that the words in Telugu language end with vowels, just like those in Italian, and hence referred it as "The Italian of the East"; a saying that has been widely repeated.
In the period of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries saw the influence of the English language and modern communication/printing press as an effect of the British rule, especially in the areas that were part of the Madras Presidency. Literature from this time had a mix of classical and modern traditions and included works by scholars like Gidugu Venkata Ramamoorty, Kandukuri Veeresalingam, Gurazada Apparao, Gidugu Sitapati and Panuganti Lakshminarasimha Rao.
Since the 1930s, what was considered an elite literary form of the Telugu language, has now spread to the common people with the introduction of mass media like movies, television, radio and newspapers. This form of the language is also taught in schools and colleges as a standard.
- Telugu is one of the 22 languages with official status in India.
- The Andhra Pradesh Official Language Act, 1966, declares Telugu the official language of the state that is currently divided into Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. This enactment was implemented by GOMs No 420 in 2005.
- Telugu also has official language status in the Yanam district of the union territory of Puducherry.
- Telugu, along with Kannada, was declared as one of the classical languages of India in the year 2008.
- The fourth World Telugu Conference was organized in Tirupati in the last week of December 2012 and deliberated at length on issues related to Telugu language policy.
- Telugu is the third most spoken native language in India after Hindi and Bengali.
- Telugu is also the most spoken Dravidian language in the world.
- Telugu is the 3rd most spoken Indian language in the U.S after Hindi, and Gujarati as of 2017.
Main article: Early Telugu epigraphy
According to the famous Japanese Historian Noboru Karashima who once served as the President of the Epigraphical Society of India in 1985 calculated that there are approximately 10,000 inscriptions which exist in the Telugu language as of the year 1996 making it one of the most densely inscribed languages. Telugu inscriptions are found in all the districts of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. They are also found in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, and Chhattisgarh. According to recent estimates by ASI (Archaeological Survey of India) the number of inscriptions in Telugu language goes up to 14,000. Namely Adilabad, Nizamabad, Hyderabad, Anantapur, and Chittoor — produced no more than a handful of Telugu inscriptions in the Kakatiya era spanning between 1175-1324 AD.
No. 1. (A. R. No. 581 of 1925) On a white marble pillar near the entrance into the temple of Ramalingavami at Velpuru, Sattenpalli Taluk, Guntur District. Undated. This is the only stone inscription of this dynasty so far found and it is damaged and incomplete. Only the name of the family Vishnukundi and that of a ruler Madhava Varma are legible.
Western Chalukya Dynasty
No. 27. (A. R. No. 596 of 1909.) On the Naga pillar in the temple of Virabhadra outside the village of Gurazala, Palnadu Taluk, same District. S. 51. States that a Brahmin named Dara son of Kommana who was the head of Kummunuru village and who claimed to be an incarnation of the serpent king Sesha, put up a Naga-stambha in front of the temple of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva built by himself and that Betabhupa of the Haihaya family, a dependent of Bhulo Kamalla Deva (Someshvara III) made a gift of four kharis of land to the said temple.
Eastern Chalukya Dynasty
No. 4. (A. R. No. 431 of 1915) On a nandi slab set up near the temple of Someshvara at Eluru, Narasaraopeta Taluk, Same District. S. 925. Records the grant of land to god Somanathadeva by Paricheda Chikka Bhimaraju.
No. 64. (A. R. No. 567 of 1925.) On a big white marble pillar set up near the dhvajastambha in the temple of Ramalingesvara, Velpuru, Sattenepalli Taluk, Guntur District. S. 1030 Records the gift of a perpetual lamp by Kota Gokaraju son of Bhima to the temple of Ramesvara of Velupuru.
Early Cholas of Renadu
No. 607. (A. R. No. 380 of 1904.) On two faces of a broken pillar lying in the courtyard of the temple of Chennakesavasvami at Kalamalla, Kamalapuram Taluk, same District. Undated. Damaged and unintelligible. Mentions Dhananjaya MuttaRasu(Raju) and Renadu.He is the descendant of early Tamil cholas .Here in this place these people population is so high.
- The first Telugu inscription known as ‘Kalamalla’ , dating back to 575 AD, found in Sri Chennakesava Swamy temple premises in Kalamalla village in Kadapa district was made by Renati Chola King Erikal Muturaju Dhanunjaya Varma.
No. 651. (A. R. No. 99 of 1909.) On a stone lying near Paravastu Rangacharya's house at Vizagapatam. S. 101 (h) 17th year of Ananta Varma Deva. Records the gift of "perumbadi" (?) by the "city twelve" of Visakhapattanamu alias Kulottunga-Chodapattanamu to Matamana of Malamandala. The description of the donor is not quite intelligible.
No. 675 (A. R. No. 681 of 1926.) On a pillar in the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the temple of Nilakanthesvara, Narayanapuram, Bobbili Taluk, same District. S. 1053. Records gift of a perpetual lamp by Chodaraju Maha Devi (and another ?) to the temple of Nilisvara for the merit of Chodagangadeva.
No. 727. (A. R. No. 827 of 1917.) On a stone lying at the entrance into the temple of Tumbesvara, Pratapur, Chatrapur Taluk, Ganjam District. Year missing. Incomplete. Mentions. Ananta Varma
No. 732. (A. R. No. 802 of 1922.) On the four faces of the Garuda-pillar planted near the dhvajastambha in the temple of Chennakesava, Idupulapadu, same Taluk and District. S. 1422. (Raudri) Records the gift by Pratapa-Radra of the village Idvulapadu to the east of Vinikonda, to Madhava-mantrin of the Bharadvaja-gotra and the Yajnyavalkya-saka. Gives a genealogy of the Gajapatis and of the donor.
No. 733. (A. R. No. 375 of 1926.) On a stone built into a gate of the fort at Tangeda, Palnad Taluk, same District. S. 141 (Sukla) Damaged. Unintelligible; Mentions some Khan. States that Pratapa-Rudradeva Gajapati was ruling.
No. 741. (A. R. No. 54 of 1912.) On a pillar in the temple of Kesavasvami at Chodavaram, Viravalli Taluk, Vizagapatam District. Saka year not given (Kalayukti) Records the consecration of the image of Garutmanta by Bondu Mallayya for the prosperity etc. of Bhupatiraju Vallabha Raju-Mahapatra.
No. 257. (A. R. No. 324 of 1915.) On the Garudastambha in the temple of Venugopalasvami, Uppumaguluru, Narasaraopeta Taluk, same District. S. 1133. Damaged and partly illegible. Refers to the gift of an oil-mill and land made by Balli Chodaraju presumably to some temple.
(A. R. No. 138 of 1917.) On a slab lying in front of the temple of Venugopalasvami, Potturu, Guntur Taluk, Guntur District. S. 1168. Incomplete. The portion which describes the actual grant is missing. The portion available refers to what was probably a gift made to a Siva temple by Paricheda Bhimaraja, Tammu Bhimaraju, Devaraju and Ganapa Deva Raju for the merit of their father Komma Raju and mother Surala Devi. Contains the usual Parichedi titles.
No. 373. (A. R. No. 283 of 1924.) On a pillar lying in the temple of Chandramaulisvara, Anumanchipalli, Nandigama Taluk, Krishna District. S. 1182. (Raudri) States that a certain Brahmin Chavali Bhaskara consecrated the image of Sagi-Ganapesvara and that king Sagi Manma endowed the temple with land. Describes the Sagi family as of Kshatriya caste (bahujakula) and gives the donor's genealogy.
No. 376. (A. R. No. 769 of 1922.) On a stone built into the back wall of the temple of Chennakesavasvami, Nayanipalli, Bapatla Taluk, Guntur District. Year unknown. States that, in the course of his conquest of the South, king Ganapati Deva protected the king of Nelluru have killed his enemies Padihari Bayyana, Tikkana and others, that he vanquished Kulottunga Rajendra Choda of Dravila mandala, that he received presents of elephants from the king of Nelluru, that he saved the Bhringi matha on the Sriparvata and that he consecrated the image of Kumara Ganapesvara-mahadeva after his own name in ... palli. The concluding portion is missing.
No. 381. (A. R. No. 142 of 1913.) On a slab brought from Yanamadala and preserved in the Collector's Office, Guntur, same District. S. 11. 3. Incomplete and somewhat damaged. States that a certain Beta Raju founded the temple of Gopalasvami and endowed it with land, that Queen Ganapama gave it an oil-mill and a garden and that certain merchants assigned to it certain customs duties and taxes. Ganapama was probably the wife of the Kota chief.
No. 395. (A. R. No. 94 of 1917.) On the huge Nandi pillar lying near the ruined temple in Malkapuram, Guntur Taluk, Guntur District. (Published in the Journal of the Andhra Historical Research Society, Vol. IV, pp. 147–64.) S. 1183. (Durmati) Gives a detailed account of the Kakatiya family and of the foundation and pontifical succession of the Golaki-matha of the Saivas and states that king Ganapatideva promised the village of Mandara in the Velanadu-Kandravati country to his guru Visvesvara Sivacharya and that Ganapati's daughter Rudramadevi made a formal gift of that village along with the village of Velangapundi, that Visvesvara Siva established a new village with the name of Visvesvara-Golaki and peopled it with person of different castes brought from various parts of the country, that he also established the temple of Visvesvara, a Sanskrit college, a matha for Saivas, a choultry for feeding people without distinction of caste and creed, a general land a maternity hospital, besides some other things and that he made grants of land for the maintenance of all these institutions. Gives a detailed description of the administration of the trust and of the village affairs. Incidentally, it mentions a large number of other religious and charitable institutions established by Visvesvara Siva in several other places. Kakatiyas are described as belonging to the Solar race of Kshatriyas.
No. 426. (A. R. No. 222 of 1905.) On the north wall of the dark room in the temple of Tripurantakesvara, Tripurantakam, Kurnool District. S. 1192. (Pramoduta). States that Paricheda Vadamani Kota Deva Raju gave 17 cows for a lamp in the temple of Tripurantakadeva.
No. 129. (A.R. No. 690 of 1917.) Kovelakuntla, Koilkuntla Taluk, Kurnool District. On a slab set up in front of the Ankalamma temple. Sadasiva Raya, 1543 AD. This is dated Saka 1465, Sobhakrit, Nija-Sravana ba. 10., corresponding to AD 1543, 25 August (Saturday). It registers the grant of income derived from svamyatas in his nayankara territory of Kovila Kuntlasima for the Cherapu (Sirappu) and Paruventa festivals of the goddess Ahankal Amma by Maha Mandalesvara Nandyala Avubhalesvara Deva Maharaju, son of Singa Raju Deva Maharaju and the grandson of Narasingayya Deva Maharaju of the lunar race.
No. 139. (A.R. No. 498 of 1906.) Mopuru, Pulivendla Taluk, Cuddapah District. On a slab set up in front of the central shrine of the Bhairavesvara temple. Sadasiva, AD 1545. This is dated Saka 1466, Krodhin, Magha su. 7, Rathasaptami, Monday, corresponding to AD 1545, 19 January 1950. It records the remission of all taxes like Durga Vartana, Danayani Vartana, bedige, kanika and others in favour of the Vidvan mahajanas of the villages belonging to temples and to agraharas in Ghandikota Sakalisima obtained by the donor, Timmaya Deva Maharaju, son of Narasingaya Deva Maharaju and grandson of Maha Mandalesvara Nandyala Avubhala Deva Maharaju as Nayankara from the king. A similar remission of these taxes in the villages granted to the Bhai Ravesvara temple of Mopura is also recorded with the stipulation that the amount accrued was to be utilised for the daily worship and the rathosvava of the god.
No. 167. (A.R. No. 377 of 1926.) Tangeda, Palnadu Taluk, Guntur District. On a slab set up in front of the deserted temple of Sita Rama Svamin in the fort. Sadasiva, AD 1548. This is dated Saka 1470, Kilaka, vaisakha su. 15, Sunday, lunar eclipse corresponding to AD 1548, 22 April. It registers the grant of the village Kachavaram in Tangedasima to the god Lakshmi Narasimha at Tangeda by Deva Chodaraju, son of Mummaya Deva Chodaraju and the grandson of Maha Mandalesvara Apratika Malla Kurucheti Somaya Deva Chodaraju of the solar race and belonging to the Kasyapa-gotra, apastamba-sutra and Yajus-sakha at the command of Rama Raja Vithalaya Deva Maharaju who is said to have conferred the Tangedasima as nayankara the donor.
No. 175. (A.R. No. 369 of 1920.) Chitrachedu, Gooty Taluk, Anantapur District. On a slab in the compound of the mosque. Sadasiva, AD 1550. This is dated Saka 1473 (current), Sadharana, Ashadha su. 10 corresponding to AD 1550, 23 June, (Monday). This fragmentary record mentions the pontiff Santa Bhiksha Vritti Ayyavaru and his three spiritual sons, the Narapati, Asvapati and Gajapati kings who seem to have made some gifts to god Mallikarjuna of Srisaila worshipped by them.
No. 191. (A.R. No. 584 of 1909.) Macherla, Palnadu Taluk, Guntur District. On a slab set up in the courtyard of the Virabhadresvara temple. Sadasiva, AD 1554. The record is dated in Chronogram ‘rasa-saila-veda..’ and the numerals 76, Ananda, Ashadha, su. 15, Friday, lunar eclipse. The word for the numeral 1 is apparently lost. The details of the date correspond to AD 1554, 15 June 1551, if the month was Adhika Ashadha. The inscription which is damaged, records a grant of 14 putti and 10 tumu of land constituting it into a village by name Lingapuram, by Ling Amma, wife of Veligoti Komara Timma Nayaka to the gods Ishta Kamesvara and Viresvara of Macherla situated to the north of Macherla and west of the Chandra Bhaga river, in Nagarjuna-konda-sima which Komara Timma Nayaka is said to have obtained as nayankara from Maha Mandalesvara Rama Raju Thirumalaraju Deva Maharaju.
No. 201. (A.R. No. 161 of 1905.) Markapur, Markapur Taluk, Kurnool District. On the east wall, left of entrance, of the antarala-mandapa in the Chenna-kesava-svamin temple. Sadasiva, AD 1555. This is dated Saka 1476, Ananda, Magha su. 7, corresponding to AD 1555, 29 January.
It records a gift of the various toll incomes due from the 18 villages, viz., Marakarapuram, Channavaram, Konddapuram, Yachavaram, Rayavaram, Gonguladinna, Tarnumbadu, Surepalli, Vanalapuram, Chanareddipalle, Gangireddipalle, Korevanipalle, Medisettipalle, Gollapalle, Jammuladinna, Tellambadu, Kamalpuram and Kondapalli to god Chennakesava by Maha Mandalesvara Madiraju Narappadeva Maharaju, son of Aubhalayya Deva Maharaju, grandson of Maha Mandalesvara Madiraju Singa Raju Deva Maharaju, of Kasyapa-gotra and Surya-vamsa, and nephew of Maha Mandalesvara Rama Raju Thirumalaraju. The gift villages are said to be situated in Kochcherla Kotasima which was held by the donor as Nayankara from the king. Records in addition that the lanjasunkham (levy on prostitutes) collected during the festivals at Marakapuram was also made over to the temple and that five out of every six dishes of offerings to the deity, were to be made over to the satra (feeding house) for feeding paradesi Brahmanas of the smartha sect, the sixth dish being the share of the sthanikas, the adhikaris and the karanas.
Telugu region boundaries
Andhra is characterised as having its own mother tongue, and its territory has been equated with the extent of the Telugu language. The equivalence between the Telugu linguistic sphere and geographical boundaries of Andhra is also brought out in an eleventh century description of Andhra boundaries. Andhra, according to this text, was bounded in north by Mahendra mountain in the modern Ganjam District of Orissa and to the south by Kalahasti temple in Chittor District. But Andhra extended westwards as far as Srisailam in the Kurnool District, about halfway across the modern state. Page number-36. According to other sources in the early sixteenth century, the northern boundary is Simhachalam and the southern limit is Tirupati or Tirumala Hill of the Telugu Country.
Telugu place names
Main article: Place names in India
Telugu place names are present all around Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Common suffixes are ooru, pudi, pedu, peta, patnam, wada, giri, cherla, seema, Gudem etc. Example: Guntur, Chintalapudi, Yerpedu, Suryapet, Vemulawada[disambiguation needed], Visakhapatnam, Ananthagiri HillsVijayawada, Macherla, Miryalagudem etc. They can also be seen in the border areas of Tamil Nadu.
There are three major dialects: Andhra dialect spoken in the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, Rayalaseema dialect spoken in the four Rayalaseema districts of Andhra Pradesh and finally Telangana dialect, laced with Urdu words, spoken mainly in Telangana.
Waddar, Chenchu, and Manna-Dora are all closely related to Telugu. Dialects of Telugu are Berad, Dasari, Dommara, Golari, Kamathi, Komtao, Konda-Reddi, Salewari, Vadaga, Srikakula, Vishakhapatnam, East Godaveri, Rayalseema, Nellore, Guntur, Vadari and Yanadi.
In Karnataka the dialect sees more influence of Kannada and is a bit different than what is spoken in Andhra. There are significant populations of Telugu speakers in the eastern districts of Karnataka viz. Bangalore Urban, Bellary, Chikballapur, Kolar.
In Tamil Nadu the Telugu dialect is classified into Salem, Coimbatore, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai and Madras Telugu dialects. It is also spoken in pockets of Virudhunagar, Tuticorin, Tirunelveli, Madurai, Theni, Madras (Chennai) and Thanjavur districts.
See also: States of India by Telugu speakers
Telugu is natively spoken in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and Yanam district of Puducherry. Telugu speaking migrants are also found in the neighboring states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, some parts of Jharkhand and the Kharagpur region of West Bengal in India. At 7.2% of the population, Telugu is the third-most-spoken language in the Indian subcontinent after Hindi and Bengali. In Karnataka, 7.0% of the population speak Telugu, and 5.6% in Tamil Nadu.
The Telugu diaspora numbers more than 800,000 in the United States, with the highest concentration in CentralNew Jersey (Little Andhra); Telugu speakers are found as well in Australia, New Zealand, Bahrain, Canada (Toronto), Fiji, Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, Myanmar, Europe (Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom), South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, and United Arab Emirates.
The roman transliteration of the Telugu script is in National Library at Kolkata romanisation.
Telugu words generally end in vowels. In Old Telugu, this was absolute; in the modern language m, n, y, w may end a word. Atypically for a Dravidian language, voiced consonants were distinctive even in the oldest recorded form of the language. Sanskrit loans have introduced aspirated and murmured consonants as well.
Telugu does not have contrastive stress, and speakers vary on where they perceive stress. Most place it on the penultimate or final syllable, depending on word and vowel length.
Telugu features a form of vowel harmony wherein the second vowel in disyllabic noun and adjective roots alters according to whether the first vowel is tense or lax.[need illustrations] Also, if the second vowel is open (i.e., /aː/ or /a/), then the first vowel is more open and centralized (e.g., [mɛːka] 'goat', as opposed to [meːku] 'nail'). Telugu words also have vowels in inflectional suffixes that are harmonized with the vowels of the preceding syllable.
|Vowels – అచ్చులు acculu|
|/i/ ఇ i||/iː/ ఈ ī||/u/ ఉ u||/uː/ ఊ ū|
|/e/ ఎ e||/eː/ ఏ ē||/o/ ఒ o||/oː/ ఓ ō|
|/æː/||/a/ అ a||/aː/ ఆ ā|
/æː/ only occurs in loan words.
Telugu has two diphthongs: /ai/ ఐ ai and /au/ ఔ au .
The table below illustrates the articulation of the consonants.
*The aspirated and breathy-voiced consonants occur mostly in loan words, as do the fricatives apart from native /s̪/.
Main article: Telugu grammar
The Telugu Grammar is called vyākaranam (వ్యాకరణం).
The first treatise on Telugu grammar, the Āndhra Śabda Cinṭāmaṇi, was written in Sanskrit by Nannayya, considered the first Telugu poet and translator, in the 11th century AD. This grammar followed patterns described in grammatical treatises such as Aṣṭādhyāyī and Vālmīkivyākaranam, but unlike Pāṇini, Nannayya divided his work into five chapters, covering samjnā, sandhi, ajanta, halanta and kriya. Every Telugu grammatical rule is derived from Pāṇinian concepts.
In the 19th century, Chinnaya Suri wrote a simplified work on Telugu grammar called Bāla Vyākaraṇam, borrowing concepts and ideas from Nannayya's grammar.
|Sentence||రాముడు బడికి వెళ్తాడు.|
|Translation||Rama goes to school.|
This sentence can also be interpreted as 'Rama will go to school', depending on the context, but it does not affect the SOV order.