Natalie Nand 98070648 The practices in leadership have changed in the post-bureaucratic era. Leadership is at the core of success for any business. Recent research has explicitly studies the role of leadership in the bureaucratic and post-bureaucratic eras. The twentieth-century brought a change in the workplace structure. It is now observed as ever-changing, dynamic and self-motivating. It is where leadership processes motivate people to express their creative and intuitive rationale (Rego, Sousa & Marques 2012). Styles of leadership in the postbureaucratic era are now observed as being coordinative with the working environment. Here, the success of a business is generally dependent on the leadership processes that positively affect individuals (Meindl, Ehrlich, Dukerich 1985). In this essay I will aim to evaluate various leadership styles and traits by investigating how the evolvement of the psychological and physiological perception of behaviour has affected how businesses are managed. Concepts of trust, empowerment and responsibility of workers in a post-bureaucratic workplace will be examined as well as the divergent impacts of practices from the bureaucratic era. To argue this, it is essential to consider that the efficiency and style of leadership is generally governed by contingent and situational issues affecting how and organisation is managed. The implementing of standard regulations and rules, systematic control and strict discipline is what characterises the idea of bureaucracy conveyed through transactional leadership (Nikezic, Puric & Puric 2012). There’s a concentration on maintaining control by keeping autocratic practices commanding what is necessary. Increased stability is offered through transactional leadership. This often reflects the economic situation. It also reflects that alternative methods to the ways in which people were managed were not often considered 1 Natalie Nand 98070648 (Eisenbach, Watson & Pillai 1999). This idea was extended upon, and emphasised conditional punishment or reward as the foundation for productivity and motivation. This method of leadership however, fails to encourage increased devotion and satisfaction which is required to accomplish goals that surpass regular workplace objectives. A complex idea of transforming leadership was introduced in the 1970’s. In this notion, regular understandings and perceptions of the normal relationship between leader and follower are tested. Leaders create feelings of trust, admiration and an aspiration to get involved in the organisation (Browning 2007). By surpassing the limits of the interdependent connection between follower and leader, businesses experience a restructuring of traditions regarding leadership which used to focus on authoritative methods and power. Postbureaucratic leadership practices allow for the formation of important roles that focus on the care of employees and observing open communication, where both parties are dedicated to a common goal and obtain fulfilment working collectively in a synergised workplace to accomplish organisational goals (Herman 2007). While this new style of leadership promotes commitment of employees, we need to consider the impacts in respect to improved individual well-being and increased effectiveness within the workplace. A leader’s principles and behavioural characteristics create the drive for success. As portrayed through Browning’s account of Shackleton’s strenuous journey, leaders can alter their approach to meet the needs of employees based on the circumstances (Browning 2007). In order to have a successful transformational leadership approach, you need to have inspirational, communicative and charismatic qualities (Dutton et al. 2002). On the other hand, if an individual is absent of these traits, no amount of experience or technical 2 Natalie Nand 98070648 skill will help in accomplishing organisational goals through higher employee performance and motivation. Post-bureaucratic era leadership styles have been altered to reflect the complex ideas regarding behaviour. They show that a shift in perspective that results in the empowerment of employees has permitted businesses incessantly to increase production and output. Douglas McGregor discusses many preconceived implications describing theories of the nature of humans in his 1960 work titled “The Human Side of Enterprise”. His theories provided the fundamental basis from which businesses began to enforce a new method of leadership. From this, he developed two theories concerning the human practices of work. Theory X represents bureaucracy. The focus is on a person’s absence of desire, motivation and ambition to succeed. It notes how organisational goals will be achieved only through an autocratic style of leadership (Clegg, Kornberger & Pitsis 2011). Contrastingly, theory Y represents the postbureaucracy. It involves a more rounded attitude to leadership and concentrates on an individual’s self-actualisation in the workplace. The research found a shift that now focused on self-esteem and self-actualisation (Maslow 1943). This understanding allowed leaders to enforce methods that promoted innovation and creativity amid workers in their quest to attain increased levels of psychological fulfilment. A reorganisation of the workplace was enabled through the transfer of power among leaders and followers. This allowed for a path that supported organisational and employee objectives and let them coincide. This eventually leads to increased productivity and efficiency which was required by the inception of gloablisation. 3 Natalie Nand 98070648 The relationship between follower and leader can be defined as a multifaceted mutual understanding that requires distinct and clear methods of communication. Effective leadership creates the foundation on which organisations attain preferred results that reflect development and growth of the organisation. Organisational goals can only be accomplished when leaders can efficiently express their vision among their workers that will help in harmonizing the objectives of the organisation and individual. Post-bureaucracy allows leadership to be explored through another perspective. We have seen a change from concentration on the significance of certain leadership qualities to a new appreciation emphasising the communication between follower and leader. From the arguments presented in this essay, we can justify that there is no decisive style of leadership that can be viewed as more accurate than the other. Transactional leadership has been unwavering and still flourishes in businesses that view stability and effective methods of product vital to success, whereas transformational leadership involves fulfilling an individual’s psychological needs. 4 Natalie Nand 98070648 Reference List Bass, B.M. 1985, ‘From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision’, Journal of Organizational Dynamics, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 19-32 Browning, B.W. 2007, ‘Leadership in desperate times: An analysis of endurance: Shackleton’s incredible voyage through the lens of leadership theory’, Advances in Developing Human Resources, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 183-98 Clegg, S., Kornberger, M. & Pitsis, T. 2011, Managing & Organizations: An Introduction to Theory & Practice, 3rd edn, Sage Publications, Singapore Dutton, J.E., Frost, P., Worlkine, M.C., Lilius, J.M. & Kanov, J.M. 2002, ‘Leading in times of trauma’, Harvard Business Review, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 54-61 Eisenbach, R., Watson, K. & Pillai, R. 1999, ‘Transformational leadership in the context of organizational change’, Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 80-89 Herman, S. 2007, ‘Leadership training in a “not-leadership” society’, Journal of Management Education, vol. 31, no. 2, p. 151-5 Johnson, P., Wood, G.T., Brewster, C.J. & Brookes, M. 2009. ‘The rise of post-bureaucracy: theorists’ fancy of organizational praxis?’, Journal of International Sociology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 37-61 Maslow, H.A. 1943, ‘A Theory of Human Motivation’, Psychological Review, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 370-396 Meindl, J.R., Ehrlich, S.B. & Dukerich, J.M. 1985, ‘The romance of leadership’, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 78-102 5 Natalie Nand 98070648 Nikezic, S., Puric, S. & Puric, J. 2012, ‘Transactional and transformation leadership: Development through changes’, International Journal for Quality Research, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 285-96 Rego, A., Sousa, F. & Marques, C. 2012, ‘Authentic leadership promoting employees’, Journal of Business Reseach, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 429-37 6
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