Poetry Critical Thinking Questions For Nurses

1. Davies GJ. The need for critical thinking in rehabilitation. J Sport Rehabil. 1995;4:1–22.

2. Fuller D. Critical thinking in undergraduate athletic training education. J Athl Train. 1997;32:242–247.[PMC free article][PubMed]

3. Leaver-Dunn D, Harrelson GL, Martin M, Wyatt T. Critical-thinking predisposition among undergraduate athletic training students. J Athl Train. 2002;37(4 suppl):S147–S151.[PMC free article][PubMed]

4. Paul R. How to Prepare Students For A Rapidly Changing World. Santa Rosa, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking; 1995.

5. Watson GB, Glaser EM. Test Manual: The Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corp; 1994.

6. McPeck JE. Teaching Critical Thinking: Dialogue and Dialect. New York, NY: Routledge; 1990.

7. American Philosophical Association. Critical Thinking, The Delphi Report: Research Findings and Recommendations Prepared for the Committee on Pre-College Philosophy. San Francisco, CA: California Academic Press; 1990.

8. Dewey J. How We Think. 2nd ed. Boston, MA: DC Heath; 1933.

9. Facione PA, Sanchez CA, Facione NC, Gainen J. The disposition toward critical thinking. J Gen Educ. 1995;44:1–25.

10. Bailin S, Case R, Coombs JR, Daniels LB. Common misconceptions of critical thinking. J Curriculum Stud. 1999;31:269–283.

11. Daly WM. The development of an alternative method in the assessment of critical thinking as an outcome of nursing education. J Adv Nurs. 2001;36:120–130.[PubMed]

12. Facione NC, Facione PA, Sanchez CA. Critical thinking disposition as a measure of competent clinical judgment: the development of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. J Nurs Educ. 1994;33:345–350.[PubMed]

13. Facione PA, Facione NC, Giancarlo CA. Test Manual: The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. Millbrae, CA: Insight Assessment; 2000.

14. Loving GL, Wilson JS. Infusing critical thinking into the nursing curriculum through faculty development. Nurs Educ. 2000;25:70–75.[PubMed]

15. Miller MA, Malcom NS. Critical thinking in the nursing curriculum. Nurs Health Care. 1990;11:67–73.[PubMed]

16. Espeland K, Shanta L. Empowering versus enabling in academia. J Nurs Educ. 2001;40:342–346.[PubMed]

17. Chaffee J. Critical thinking skills: the cornerstone of developmental education. J Develop Educ. 1992;15:2–39.

18. Elliot DD. Promoting critical thinking in the classroom. Nurse Educ. 1996;21:49–52.[PubMed]

19. Oermann MH. Evaluating critical thinking in clinical practice. Nurse Educ. 1997;22:25–28.[PubMed]

20. Kloss RJ. A nudge is best: helping students through the Perry Scheme of intellectual development. College Teach. 1994;42:151–158.

21. Paul R, Elder L. Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall; 2001.

22. Mills J. Better teaching through provocation. College Teach. 1995;46:21–25.

23. Craig JL, Page G. The questioning skills of nursing instructors. J Nurs Educ. 1981;20:18–23.[PubMed]

24. Phillips N, Duke M. The questioning skills of clinical teachers and preceptors: a comparative study. J Adv Nurs. 2001;33:523–529.[PubMed]

25. Bloom BS, Engelhart MD, Furst EJ, Hill WH, Krathwohl DR. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain. New York, NY: Longmans; 1956.

26. Paul RW, Heaslip P. Critical thinking and intuitive nursing practice. J Adv Nurs. 1995;22:40–47.[PubMed]

27. Dillon JT. The Practice of Questioning. London, England: Routledge; 1990.

28. Bernstein D. A negotiation model for teaching critical thinking. Teach Psychol. 1985;22:22–24.

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30. Lieberman SA, Trumble JM, Smith ER. The impact of structured student debates on critical thinking and informatics skills of second-year medical students. Acad Med. 2000;75(10 suppl):S84–S86.[PubMed]

31. Galotti KM. Reasoning about reasoning: a course project. Teach Psychol. 1995;22:66–68.

32. Meyers C. Teaching Students to Think Critically. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 1986.

33. Emig J. The Web of Meaning. Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook; 1983.

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Writing Haiku


Objectives of the Remodeled Lesson 

 

The Students Will:

  • explore the thoughts and feelings of another culture through critical reading of Haiku
  • practice creative thinking and writing

Groundwork for the study of haiku poetry should begin with an understanding of the Japanese culture and the exploration of the underlying purposes of the poetry. Appreciation for another culture may be accomplished through the visit of a foreign exchange student, a film on current Japanese life, and a study of oriental art, especially with respect to nature. Students could research Haiku, Japan, and Japanese (and other Asian art) in dictionaries, art books, and encyclopedias, and read more examples of haiku in library books.

This overview of Japanese culture should discourage stereotypes and heighten the students’’ understanding of the people, their daily lives, and their art. With this background, the empathy of the students will develop so that the exploration of thoughts underlying feelings will naturally flow into the creativeness of haiku. S-17

During the discussion of the poetry, questions should be asked about the authors and how they felt and thought when writing the poems, and why they chose to express their feelings with poetry. Some study of Japanese literature may benefit the students’’ understanding of the authors’’ feelings. A background in other nature poems would contrast and give insight into the depths of feelings and ideas expressed in poetry. S-4

Students could evaluate the poems they read. "What do you think of this poem? How does it make you feel? What do you suppose the author was thinking and feeling? Why was it written? Is it well written? Do you like some of these more than others? Which? Why?" S-17

After the students have discussed the culture, the feelings of the authors, and their own responses to the poetry, brainstorming sessions may bring out ideas about nature and an awareness of how other students may express their thoughts through haiku. It is understood that the mechanics of haiku poetry have been taught during appropriate intervals. The instruction may fit in naturally in the discussion concerning other poetic forms and the teacher may draw attention to the number of syllables with questions about the students’ comparison between the nature poetry and the haiku poems. During the brainstorming sessions, feelings may be identified through the use of colorful words and their synonyms. Descriptive phrases may be listed around a central idea and synonyms substituted to balance the poetry with the correct number of syllables.

Thus the students are well prepared to develop their rough drafts and then to revise and rewrite their haiku poems in an atmosphere loaded with expressed thoughts and rich cultural understanding.

Critique

This lesson missed the opportunity to explore the cultural background of haiku poetry. The teacher is the main investigator and disseminator of information. It is the teacher’s responsibility to research the facts and to give the information to the students. There is no attempt to contrast other poetic styles and little to guide the students’ thought into creative imagination. Groundwork for the study of haiku is negligible with the exception of a previous lesson on synonyms. The students need to have an enriching, valuable personal experience of exploring the Japanese culture and thereby understanding the underlying purpose and background of haiku poetry. Although the basic facts are introduced in the lesson on haiku, other factors need to be established, such as the quality of emotions and how the feelings may be expressed most effectively. These feelings may be explored through the thoughts of the Japanese authors.

Students are asked to write rough drafts after viewing several poems correctly written, a beginning poem with one line, and two poems with an incorrect number of syllables. After reading aloud the first poems, finishing the one poem, and correcting the last poems, students were assigned haiku poetry on the seasons. At this point, discussion on background the students need, would be appropriate. That is, not only synonyms, syllables, and such, but the emotions, feelings, and thoughts of these would-be writers should be explored. The students would have a more complete understanding of not only the mechanics, but of their thoughts and feelings and how to best express them through haiku.

Strategies Used to Remodel

  • S-21 reading critically: clarifying or critiquing texts
  • S-17 questioning deeply: raising and pursuing root or significant questions
  • S-4 exploring thoughts underlying feelings and feelings underlying thoughts

Groundwork for the study of haiku poetry should begin with an understanding of the Japanese culture and the exploration of the underlying purposes of the poetry. Appreciation for another culture may be accomplished through the visit of a foreign exchange student, a film on current Japanese life, and a study of oriental art, especially with respect to nature. Students could research Haiku, Japan, and Japanese (and other Asian art) in dictionaries, art books, and encyclopedias, and read more examples of haiku in library books. This overview of Japanese culture should discourage stereotypes and heighten the students’ understanding of the people, their daily lives, and their art. With this background, the empathy of the students will develop so that the exploration of thoughts underlying feelings will naturally flow into the creativeness of haiku. S-17

During the discussion of the poetry, questions should be asked about the authors and how they felt and thought when writing the poems, and why they chose to express their feelings with poetry. Some study of Japanese literature may benefit the students’ understanding of the authors’ feelings. A background in other nature poems would contrast and give insight into the depths of feelings and ideas expressed in poetry. S-4

Students could evaluate the poems they read. "What do you think of this poem? How does it make you feel? What do you suppose the author was thinking and feeling? Why was it written? Is it well written? Do you like some of these more than others? Which? Why?" S-17

After the students have discussed the culture, the feelings of the authors, and their own responses to the poetry, brainstorming sessions may bring out ideas about nature and an awareness of how other students may express their thoughts through haiku. It is understood that the mechanics of haiku poetry have been taught during appropriate intervals.

The instruction may fit in naturally in the discussion concerning other poetic forms and the teacher may draw attention to the number of syllables with questions about the students’ comparison between the nature poetry and the haiku poems. During the brainstorming sessions, feelings may be identified through the use of colorful words and their synonyms. Descriptive phrases may be listed around a central idea and synonyms substituted to balance the poetry with the correct number of syllables.

Thus the students are well prepared to develop their rough drafts and then to revise and rewrite their haiku poems in an atmosphere loaded with expressed thoughts and rich cultural understanding

{"id":"154","title":"Writing Haiku","author":"by Mary Louise Ross, Christ Church School, San Raf","content":"<p><a name=\"Haiku\"></a><br /> <span style=\"color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><em><strong><span style=\"color: #666666;\">Objectives of the Remodeled Lesson</span></strong></em>&nbsp;<br /> </span></p>\r\n&nbsp;\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><span style=\"color: #000099;\"><strong>The Students Will:</strong></span> </span></p>\r\n<ul>\r\n<li><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">explore the thoughts and feelings of another culture through critical reading of Haiku </span></li>\r\n<li><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">practice creative thinking and writing </span></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">Groundwork for the study of haiku poetry should begin with an understanding of the Japanese culture and the exploration of the underlying purposes of the poetry. Appreciation for another culture may be accomplished through the visit of a foreign exchange student, a film on current Japanese life, and a study of oriental art, especially with respect to nature. Students could research Haiku, Japan, and Japanese (and other Asian art) in dictionaries, art books, and encyclopedias, and read more examples of haiku in library books. </span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">This overview of Japanese culture should discourage stereotypes and heighten the students&rsquo;&rsquo; understanding of the people, their daily lives, and their art. With this background, the empathy of the students will develop so that the exploration of thoughts underlying feelings will naturally flow into the creativeness of haiku. <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s17\">S-17</a></span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">During the discussion of the poetry, questions should be asked about the authors and how they felt and thought when writing the poems, and why they chose to express their feelings with poetry. Some study of Japanese literature may benefit the students&rsquo;&rsquo; understanding of the authors&rsquo;&rsquo; feelings. A background in other nature poems would contrast and give insight into the depths of feelings and ideas expressed in poetry. <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s4\">S-4</a></span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">Students could evaluate the poems they read. \"What do you think of this poem? How does it make you feel? What do you suppose the author was thinking and feeling? Why was it written? Is it well written? Do you like some of these more than others? Which? Why?\" <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s17\">S-17</a></span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">After the students have discussed the culture, the feelings of the authors, and their own responses to the poetry, brainstorming sessions may bring out ideas about nature and an awareness of how other students may express their thoughts through haiku. It is understood that the mechanics of haiku poetry have been taught during appropriate intervals. The instruction may fit in naturally in the discussion concerning other poetic forms and the teacher may draw attention to the number of syllables with questions about the students&rsquo; comparison between the nature poetry and the haiku poems. During the brainstorming sessions, feelings may be identified through the use of colorful words and their synonyms. Descriptive phrases may be listed around a central idea and synonyms substituted to balance the poetry with the correct number of syllables.</span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">Thus the students are well prepared to develop their rough drafts and then to revise and rewrite their haiku poems in an atmosphere loaded with expressed thoughts and rich cultural understanding.</span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"color: #666666; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><em><strong>Critique</strong></em></span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">This lesson missed the opportunity to explore the cultural background of haiku poetry. The teacher is the main investigator and disseminator of information. It is the teacher&rsquo;s responsibility to research the facts and to give the information to the students. There is no attempt to contrast other poetic styles and little to guide the students&rsquo; thought into creative imagination. Groundwork for the study of haiku is negligible with the exception of a previous lesson on synonyms. The students need to have an enriching, valuable personal experience of exploring the Japanese culture and thereby understanding the underlying purpose and background of haiku poetry. Although the basic facts are introduced in the lesson on haiku, other factors need to be established, such as the quality of emotions and how the feelings may be expressed most effectively. These feelings may be explored through the thoughts of the Japanese authors.</span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">Students are asked to write rough drafts after viewing several poems correctly written, a beginning poem with one line, and two poems with an incorrect number of syllables. After reading aloud the first poems, finishing the one poem, and correcting the last poems, students were assigned haiku poetry on the seasons. At this point, discussion on background the students need, would be appropriate. That is, not only synonyms, syllables, and such, but the emotions, feelings, and thoughts of these would-be writers should be explored. The students would have a more complete understanding of not only the mechanics, but of their thoughts and feelings and how to best express them through haiku.</span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"color: #666666; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><em><strong>Strategies Used to R</strong></em></span><span style=\"color: #666666; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><em><strong>emodel</strong></em></span></p>\r\n<ul>\r\n<li><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s21\">S-21</a> reading critically: clarifying or critiquing texts </span></li>\r\n<li><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s17\">S-17</a> questioning deeply: raising and pursuing root or significant questions </span></li>\r\n<li><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s4\">S-4</a> exploring thoughts underlying feelings and feelings underlying thoughts </span></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">Groundwork for the study of haiku poetry should begin with an understanding of the Japanese culture and the exploration of the underlying purposes of the poetry. Appreciation for another culture may be accomplished through the visit of a foreign exchange student, a film on current Japanese life, and a study of oriental art, especially with respect to nature. Students could research Haiku, Japan, and Japanese (and other Asian art) in dictionaries, art books, and encyclopedias, and read more examples of haiku in library books. This overview of Japanese culture should discourage stereotypes and heighten the students&rsquo; understanding of the people, their daily lives, and their art. With this background, the empathy of the students will develop so that the exploration of thoughts underlying feelings will naturally flow into the creativeness of haiku. <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s17\">S-17</a></span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">During the discussion of the poetry, questions should be asked about the authors and how they felt and thought when writing the poems, and why they chose to express their feelings with poetry. Some study of Japanese literature may benefit the students&rsquo; understanding of the authors&rsquo; feelings. A background in other nature poems would contrast and give insight into the depths of feelings and ideas expressed in poetry. <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s4\">S-4</a></span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">Students could evaluate the poems they read. \"What do you think of this poem? How does it make you feel? What do you suppose the author was thinking and feeling? Why was it written? Is it well written? Do you like some of these more than others? Which? Why?\" <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s17\">S-17</a></span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">After the students have discussed the culture, the feelings of the authors, and their own responses to the poetry, brainstorming sessions may bring out ideas about nature and an awareness of how other students may express their thoughts through haiku. It is understood that the mechanics of haiku poetry have been taught during appropriate intervals. </span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">The instruction may fit in naturally in the discussion concerning other poetic forms and the teacher may draw attention to the number of syllables with questions about the students&rsquo; comparison between the nature poetry and the haiku poems. During the brainstorming sessions, feelings may be identified through the use of colorful words and their synonyms. Descriptive phrases may be listed around a central idea and synonyms substituted to balance the poetry with the correct number of syllables.</span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">Thus the students are well prepared to develop their rough drafts and then to revise and rewrite their haiku poems in an atmosphere loaded with expressed thoughts and rich cultural understanding</span></p>\r\n<p><br style=\"clear: both;\" /></p>","public_access":"1","public_downloads":"1","sku":"","files":{},"images":{}}

Myths


Objectives of the Remodeled Lesson


The Students Will:

  • deeply question the meaning of a particular myth
  • discuss the literal meaning of the myth
  • apply their understanding of the myth they have studied to myths of other cultures

Original Lesson Plan

Skills Unit 31 focuses on myth and legend recognition. The children are directed to read a story about why Ra-wen-io, maker of all things on earth, gave Rabbit long back legs and long ears and why he gave Owl a short neck and big eyes. Upon finishing the story, children are asked to answer factual questions about the story and to consider the definition of 'myth' and 'legend'. They are then asked to read a Hawaiian story about Pele and how she became goddess of volcanoes. Again factual questions are asked. In addition, children are asked to identify the story as myth or legend. The unit concludes with a lesson on legend identification.

Critique

I will focus on the myth aspect of the lesson. Even though many sixth graders would be unable to recite definitions of 'myth' and 'legend' and identify a given story as one or the other, they have long been acquainted with myths and legends. Certainly it is important that children have the language of literature and be able to recognize different forms of literature, but that is not enough. Skills Unit 31 has for its main task myth recognition, but it fails to consider the worthier task of myth and its relationship to reality, seen and unseen.

In the section titled "Introducing the Skill Lesson," the teacher is told the scope of the lesson and what to say and do:

"Read the title. Explain that in this lesson pupils will read about two very old types of literature - the myth and the legend. The lesson will help them understand the difference between the two and will help them recognize each when they read or hear such tales."

Such is the scope of the lesson. Not only does it fail to encourage critical thinking in the student, but it likewise discourages the teacher from thinking critically. Neither teacher nor student is called upon to become actively involved in this lesson; rather they are told to do trite, uninteresting tasks.

After reading the first myth, the children read the following in their text:

"The story you have just read is an American Indian myth. A myth is a very old story handed down among people. It may be about some gods or goddesses. It often explains something about nature, such as why there is thunder and lightning."

The children have been given a definition of 'myth'; they are not encouraged to explore for themselves the meaning of myth, an exercise more valuable because it engages their curiosity and taps their desire to know and understand. The lesson continues, and children read another story about gods and goddesses, after which they are asked to identify the story as legend or myth, a task which children complete successfully as the definition of myth in the text uses the key words, gods and goddesses. Thus the lesson of myths is completed without ever having explored myth and its meaning.

Strategies Used to Remodel

  • S-17 questioning deeply: raising and pursuing root or significant questions
  • S-35 exploring implications and consequences
  • S-14 clarifying and analyzing the meanings of words or phrases
  • S-11 comparing analogous situations: transferring insights to new contexts
  • S-9 developing confidence in reason
  • S-23 making interdisciplinary connections

The remodeled lesson, by having students discuss root questions, would explore myth and its meaning. Instead of defining 'myth' for the children and having them apply that definition to stories they read, I would begin by telling them that they are going to read an Indian myth.

A discussion of the Indian myth in particular and of myth in general would follow. "What part of the myth seems unbelievable? Does the myth deal with reality? What reality does the myth explain? What are the obvious, seen realities that the myth explains and the less obvious but unseen realities that the myth implies? S-35 Why does the myth describe a creator and creatures? How is that relationship developed through the actions of Ra-wen-io, Rabbit, and Owl, and what is implied about their relationships? What is the point of this story? Do myths reveal reality as it is or as a society perceives it to be? Why do people tell myths? What do myths reveal about the tellers of myths and their beliefs?" The lesson would be extended over a period of time during which myths from other cultures would be read, discussed, and compared.

"How do the details of myths differ? Why do they differ? Are myths alike in any way? How? Why? How do myths compare to other kinds of stories? Why are myths an important part of the literature of many cultures?" S-14

The lesson would conclude with a written essay in which the children would be asked to compare and contrast two myths, one which had been discussed in class and one which they would read for the first time. S-11

Editor's note: After exploring the deeper meanings of myths, students could critique the superficial explanation in their text. "What does the text say myths are about, or what they are for? What did we say? What aspects of myths or what meaning do myths have that your text fails to mention? Why?" S-9 Students could read myths from other cultures they have studied, and discuss them. "What were their myths like? What do they tell us about those people, their lives, their culture?" S-23 Students could also examine the personalities and characteristics of animals in myths, and compare them to their impressions of those animals and what zoologists know of their behavior. S-23

{"id":"155","title":"Myths","author":"by Virginia Reilly, St. Apollinaris School, Napa, ","content":"<p><span style=\"color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><em><br /> <strong><span style=\"color: #666666;\">Objectives of the Remodeled Lesson</span></strong><br /> </em></span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><br /> <span style=\"color: #000099;\"><strong>The Students Will:</strong></span></span></p>\r\n<ul>\r\n<li><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">deeply question the meaning of a particular myth</span> </li>\r\n<li><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">discuss the literal meaning of the myth</span> </li>\r\n<li><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">apply their understanding of the myth they have studied to myths of other cultures</span> </li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p><span style=\"color: #666666; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><em><strong>Original Lesson Plan</strong></em></span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">Skills Unit 31 focuses on myth and legend recognition. The children are directed to read a story about why Ra-wen-io, maker of all things on earth, gave Rabbit long back legs and long ears and why he gave Owl a short neck and big eyes. Upon finishing the story, children are asked to answer factual questions about the story and to consider the definition of 'myth' and 'legend'. They are then asked to read a Hawaiian story about Pele and how she became goddess of volcanoes. Again factual questions are asked. In addition, children are asked to identify the story as myth or legend. The unit concludes with a lesson on legend identification.</span></p>\r\n<p><strong><span style=\"color: #666666;\"><span><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><em>Critique</em></span> </span></span></strong></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">I will focus on the myth aspect of the lesson. Even though many sixth graders would be unable to recite definitions of 'myth' and 'legend' and identify a given story as one or the other, they have long been acquainted with myths and legends. Certainly it is important that children have the language of literature and be able to recognize different forms of literature, but that is not enough. Skills Unit 31 has for its main task myth recognition, but it fails to consider the worthier task of myth and its relationship to reality, seen and unseen.</span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">In the section titled \"Introducing the Skill Lesson,\" the teacher is told the scope of the lesson and what to say and do:</span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">\"Read the title. Explain that in this lesson pupils will read about two very old types of literature - the myth and the legend. The lesson will help them understand the difference between the two and will help them recognize each when they read or hear such tales.\"</span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">Such is the scope of the lesson. Not only does it fail to encourage critical thinking in the student, but it likewise discourages the teacher from thinking critically. Neither teacher nor student is called upon to become actively involved in this lesson; rather they are told to do trite, uninteresting tasks.</span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">After reading the first myth, the children read the following in their text:</span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">\"The story you have just read is an American Indian myth. A myth is a very old story handed down among people. It may be about some gods or goddesses. It often explains something about nature, such as why there is thunder and lightning.\"</span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">The children have been given a definition of 'myth'; they are not encouraged to explore for themselves the meaning of myth, an exercise more valuable because it engages their curiosity and taps their desire to know and understand. The lesson continues, and children read another story about gods and goddesses, after which they are asked to identify the story as legend or myth, a task which children complete successfully as the definition of myth in the text uses the key words, gods and goddesses. Thus the lesson of myths is completed without ever having explored myth and its meaning.</span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"color: #666666; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><em><strong>Strategies Used to Remodel</strong></em></span></p>\r\n<ul>\r\n<li><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s17\">S-17</a> questioning deeply: raising and pursuing root or significant questions</span> </li>\r\n<li><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s35\">S-35</a> exploring implications and consequences</span> </li>\r\n<li><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s14\">S-14</a> clarifying and analyzing the meanings of words or phrases</span> </li>\r\n<li><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s11\">S-11</a> comparing analogous situations: transferring insights to new contexts</span> </li>\r\n<li><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s9\">S-9</a> developing confidence in reason</span> </li>\r\n<li><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s23\">S-23</a> making interdisciplinary connections</span> </li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">The remodeled lesson, by having students discuss root questions, would explore myth and its meaning. Instead of defining 'myth' for the children and having them apply that definition to stories they read, I would begin by telling them that they are going to read an Indian myth.</span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">A discussion of the Indian myth in particular and of myth in general would follow. \"What part of the myth seems unbelievable? Does the myth deal with reality? What reality does the myth explain? What are the obvious, seen realities that the myth explains and the less obvious but unseen realities that the myth implies? <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s35\">S-35</a> Why does the myth describe a creator and creatures? How is that relationship developed through the actions of Ra-wen-io, Rabbit, and Owl, and what is implied about their relationships? What is the point of this story? Do myths reveal reality as it is or as a society perceives it to be? Why do people tell myths? What do myths reveal about the tellers of myths and their beliefs?\" The lesson would be extended over a period of time during which myths from other cultures would be read, discussed, and compared.</span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">\"How do the details of myths differ? Why do they differ? Are myths alike in any way? How? Why? How do myths compare to other kinds of stories? Why are myths an important part of the literature of many cultures?\" <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s14\">S-14</a></span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">The lesson would conclude with a written essay in which the children would be asked to compare and contrast two myths, one which had been discussed in class and one which they would read for the first time. <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s11\">S-11</a></span></p>\r\n<p><span style=\"font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><strong>Editor's note:</strong> After exploring the deeper meanings of myths, students could critique the superficial explanation in their text. \"What does the text say myths are about, or what they are for? What did we say? What aspects of myths or what meaning do myths have that your text fails to mention? Why?\" <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s9\">S-9</a> Students could read myths from other cultures they have studied, and discuss them. \"What were their myths like? What do they tell us about those people, their lives, their culture?\" <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/strategy-list-35-dimensions-of-critical-thought/466#s23\">S-23</a> Students could also examine the personalities and characteristics of animals in myths, and compare them to their impressions of those animals and what zoologists know of their behavior. S-23</span></p>\r\n<p><br style=\"clear: both;\" /></p>","public_access":"1","public_downloads":"1","sku":"","files":{},"images":{}}

Sojourner Truth


Objectives of the Remodeled Lesson

The Students Will:

  • understand Sojourner Truth's message in "Ain't I a Woman" by exploring thoughts underlying feelings, clarifying issues and claims, making inferences, and integrating critical vocabulary
  • appreciate her personal qualities
  • evaluate arguments in "Ain't I a Woman," supplying evidence for conclusions
  • identify society's double standards, inconsistency, racism, and sexism as revealed in "Ain't I a Woman"
  • Socratically explore inconsistencies and double standards in personal thought and behavior
  • recognize the speech's dramatic and expressive qualities

Abstract

Students read that Sojourner Truth gave a speech to the women's rights convention in Akron, Ohio. As men tried to shout her down, she went to the platform and said,
That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place wherever. Nobody ever helps me into carriages or over mud puddles, or gives me any best place. And ain't I a woman? Look at me! I have ploughed and planted and gathered into barns and no man could head [do better than] me. And ain't I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man - when I could get it - and bear the lash [whip] as well.
And ain't I a woman? I have borne thirteen children and seen most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me. And ain't I a woman?...

Students are asked the following questions: a. About what two groups of people was Sojourner Truth speaking? (Blacks and women) b. What work did she do that men did? (Plowed, planted, and gathered crops) c. What could she do equal to a man? (Work, eat, and suffer punishment) d. What special sadness did Sojourner Truth have to bear because she was a black woman? (Her children were sold from her.) e. Why did she keep repeating the phrase, "And ain't I a woman?" (Answers will vary. Pupils may say to dramatize her speech, to emphasize women's abilities, to plead for women's rights.) [From The United States and Its Neighbors, Timothy M. Helmus, Val E. Arnsdorf, Edgar A Toppin, and Norman J. G. Pounds. © 1984 by Silver Burdett Co. pp. 142-143.]

Critique

We chose this passage in part because it is representative of vignettes about famous people which are included within a lesson. This one, shorter than many, has little biographical information, though the text suggests Sojourner Truth as a subject for a biographical report. Too often texts gloss over stories of injustice and inhumanity; this piece is a laudable exception.

Even this short segment presents opportunities for understanding Sojourner Truth as a remarkable individual with a powerful message and an effective way of dramatizing it. The text, however, misses all opportunities by choosing to dissect the excerpt principally in terms of its factual data. Most of the questions ask students to pull information out of the speech and repeat it. In emphasizing questions such as "What work did she do that men did?" (questions a-d), the text entirely misses the important message and social criticism of the speech.

Questions such as this simply function to disassemble the speech into its parts and put them back together in chronological order. If supplementary biographical information were provided, the speech could more easily be considered on its own terms for the human qualities and important messages it expresses. In order to understand these things, students must do more than repeat information; they must infer meaning.

The text also fails to recognize the speech's dramatic and literary power, and its portrayal of Sojourner Truth as a passionate, courageous, multi-dimensional person. The text lists the recall questions under the heading, "Understanding Primary Sources." This is a useful skill, when understanding is achieved.

Here, however, students are simply asked to decode a primary source. Oddly enough, the only question out of five (question e) that might lead to a significant understanding of one aspect of the speech, ignores its passion and energy. In the teacher's notes about the answer, no allusion is made to the anguish Sojourner Truth felt at the injustices directed toward herself and all African-American women of the time, or the inconsistency between belief in women's delicacy and treatment of African-American women.

One of the important attributes of critical thinkers is the willingness to look at inconsistencies in their own thought, and discrepancies between their words and actions. Our thinking is often characterized by quite unconscious categories to which we apply different standards. That is, we treat our friends one way and family members another way, and we treat members of other racial, religious, ethnic, or social groups differently from members of our own.

Critical thinkers search for these categories and inconsistencies in their own thinking and behavior, evaluate them, and adjust accordingly. The speech, "Ain't I a Woman," provides an excellent model which reveals these sorts of thinking patterns, decries the inequities they create, and invites self-examination in the name of justice.

Strategies Used to Remodel

  • S-4 exploring thoughts underlying feelings and feelings underlying thoughts

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