The MLA citation style is widely used in the Humanities. The following examples are based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (6th ed. 2003), but the underlining of titles is replaced by the use of italics in accordance with the preferred style of the Humanities departments at the University of Canterbury. In the context of using EndNote, this style is referred to MLA-italics
If possible, introduce the reference in the text, and give page numbers in parentheses.
Place the parentheses where there would naturally be a pause, usually at the end of the sentence, and preceding the full-stop at the end of that sentence eg
Author mentioned in text:
Jones emphasises this point (156-7).
Author mentioned only in reference:
This point has been emphasised (Jones 156-7).
Material found in indirect source:
Greenwood supports this view (in Jones 66).
Your essay should conclude with a bibliography, or full list of works consulted, arranged in order by author name. If the there is no author, place the item by the first letter of its title, ignoring 'a' and 'the' . Using the following layout:
Books with one author
Winterson, Jeanette. Oranges are not the only fruit. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1987.
Books with 2 to 3 authors
Reverse the name of the first author only.
Kuiper, Koenraad and W. Scott Allan. An introduction to English language: word, sound, and sentence. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
Books with more than 3 authors
The name of the first author should be given, followed by et al ("and others") eg Quirk, Randolph, et al.
give all names in full, in the order in which they appear on the title page.
Book prepared by an editor
Austen, Jane. Sense and Sensibility. Ed. Claudia Johnson. New York: Norton, 2001.
Hildegard of Bingen. Selected writings. Trans. Mark Atherton. New York: Penguin, 2001
Book with no author
Use the title of the book.
eg The New English Bible. NY: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Entire Online Book
Give the publication information for the original book. Add the electronic publication information where available eg date of electronic publication. Include the url or DOI.
Nesbit, Edith. Ballads and lyrics of Socialism. London: The Fabian Society, 1908. Victorian Womens Writers Project . 4 Oct. 2010.http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/vwwp/view?docId=VAB7021.
Frost, Robert. North of Boston. 2nd ed. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1915. Google Books. Web. 30 June 2009.
Book Chapters and Sections
Essay published in a collection
Mancoff, Debra N. "To Take Excalibur: King Arthur and the Construction of Victorian Manhood". King Arthur: A Casebook, ed. Edward D. Kennedy. New York: Garland, 1996. 257-80.
Work in an Anthology
Wendt, Albert. "The balloonfish and the Armadillo." The Picador Book of Contemporary New Zealand Fiction. Ed. Fergus Barrowman. 153-169.
Introduction, Forward, or Preface
Drabble, Margaret. Introduction to Middlemarch, by George Eliot. New York, Bantam, 1985. vii-xvii.
Work published as part of a multi-volume series
Ruskin, John. The stones of Venice. In Works, vols 9-11.
_______. The Works of John Ruskin, ed. E.T. Cook and Alexander Wedderburn. 39 vols. London: George Allen, 1903-12.
[Also an example of citing another work by the same author]
Part of an Online Book
Matz, Jessie. “Postcolonial Modernity”, in The Modern Novel: A Short Introduction, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK: Published online 25 Feb. 2008. doi: 10.1002/9780470776155.ch8.
Frequently updated, well-known reference title: brief
"Noon." Def. 4b. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd. ed. 1989.
[Also illustrates choice of one particular definition]
Specialised /lesser known reference title: in full
"Epic ". Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Article from an online encyclopedia
"Canterbury Tales, The." The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Ed. Margaret Drabble. Oxford University Press, 2000. Oxford Reference Online. 11 July 2005.
Entry from the OED Online
"magazine, n." OED Online. June 2003. Oxford University Press. 10 Dec. 2004
(The first date is the OED entry date, the second is the access date)
Entry from Grove Music Online
(when you are reading an article, click on the orange Cite button at the top of the page to generate the reference in the MLA style)
Talbot, Michael. "Vivaldi, Antonio." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. 18 Jan. 2010 <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/40120pg4>.
Enclose the title of the article in quotation marks. Italicise the title of the journal. NB: Issue numbers are only needed if the part numbers are individually paginated.
Mayer, Jed. "Germinating Memory: Hardy and Evolutionary Biology." Victorian Review 26.1 (2000): 82-97.
Barnard, Rita. "Dream topographies: J.M. Coezee and the South African Pastoral." South Atlantic Quarterly 93.1 (1994): 33-58. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Jeffrey Hunter. Vol. 117. Detroit: Gale, 1999. 65-74.
Film, DVD or video recording
Jackson, Peter, et al. The Lord of the Rings, the Fellowship of the Ring. Special extended DVD ed. United States: New Line Home Entertainment : New Line Cinema, 2002.
Macrae-Gibson, O. D. "Christ and Satan." The Complete Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 14 July 2005.
Abstract The title page should include a short abstract, one paragraph in length. The abstract should not be divided into sections, nor should it contain abbreviations or footnotes.
Keywords Please provide a short list (between three and six entries) of keywords after the abstract.
Short title The author should suggest a short title for inclusion on running heads.
Author details The manuscript should include the author’s postal address and email address (as well as fax number and telephone number if available) on a separate, unnumbered page. The corresponding author should be indicated on the separate page, and co-authors should provide details of their institutional affiliations.
Section headings should be brief and self-explanatory. Headings and sub-headings should be kept to a minimum and unnumbered.
Style In general the journal follows the recommendations of the MLA Style Manual. Further information on the key elements of MLA style can be found at the following unofficial site www.docstyles.com. For the comprehensive style details we recommend authors refer to the official MLA site at: www.mla.org. For specific instructions on style contact the Editor at the above address.
Presentation Manuscripts should be typewritten with wide margins and all material should be double-spaced including notes, references, extracts and figure legends. Do not divide words at the ends of lines. Each section of the manuscript should begin on a separate page.
Spelling Follow Oxford English (using ‘ized’ rather than ‘ised’, but 'analysed', 'enfranchised'). If in doubt, consult the Concise Oxford English Dictionary.
Commas Use the Oxford, or ‘serial’, comma, e.g. 2-, 3-, and 5-min intervals.
Numbers Spell out one to one hundred; thereafter use numerals. Use a comma separator for numbers over one thousand (i.e. 1,234).
Dates Use the date-month-year style, i.e. 11 December 1979. Where necessary, use the style 19 BC; AD 565. For date ranges, follow 1972-77, but 1898-1901.
Hyphenation Consult the MLA Style Manual for standard usages.
Prefixes that require hyphenation include: best-known work, ill-informed reporter, lower-priced tickets, well-dressed announcer, two-thirds majority, pre-1960s, post-Victorian, non-ASA, re-cover, anti-icing, non-film, writer-critic, scholar-athlete, eighteenth-century thought, nineteenth- and twentieth-century literature.
Prefixes that do not require hyphenation include: filmmaker, thoughtfully presented thesis, much maligned performer, too hasty judgment; antiwar, coworker, semiretired, underrepresented, nonjudgmental, multinational, postwar, overpay.
Capitalization should be used for words that are normally upper case (proper nouns, etc.).
Italicization should be used to refer to the titles of books, journals and films, and may be used for emphasis – e.g. on the first appearance of a keyword. Words and letters that are referred to as words or letters should also be italicised (e.g. “The term American Indian ...”).
Acronyms and abbreviations should be given in full on their first appearance, and should not be explained in titles, headings or figure legends. Common abbreviations such as etc., e.g., and i.e. may be used only in parentheses. In the text write for example (e.g.); and so forth (etc.); that is (i.e.). If an acronym is commonly used as a word, it does not require explanation (IQ, LSD, FBI, ESP).
Quotations Use single quote marks, with punctuation falling outside the marks, unless contained within the quote itself.
In-text references Only provide the author name in the citation (without year, unless year is needed to distinguish between two works by the same author). A page number is usually cited only with a direct quotation. Refer to books in the following manner: (Jacobson and Waugh 210–15); (Daiches 2: 776–77; Eldritch 115); and to films thus: Psycho (Alfred Hitchcock, 1960).
Endnotes are denoted by superscript numbers in the text and explained in Notes section (before the Acknowledgements and References sections). Please use endnotes sparingly, and do not use them to indicate references.
Reference list should be organised alphabetically by author, then by title; films referred to in the text should be included in the list, alphabetically by title. If you use EndNote and/or Reference Manager to facilitate referencing citations (not required for submission), this journal's style is available for use.
Article Use the style: Solé, Yolanda. “Valores aspectuales en español.” Hispanic Linguistics 4 (1990): 57–85.
Chapter Use the style: Murphy, Robert. “A Revenger’s Tragedy—Get Carter.” British Crime Cinema. Eds. Steve Chibnall, and Robert Murphy. London: Routledge, 1999: 123-133.
Magazine article Use the style: Wilson, Edward O. “Back from Chaos.” Atlantic Monthly Mar. 1998: 41–62.
Book Use the style: Naremore, James. More Than Night: Film Noir in its Contexts. Berkeley: California UP, 1998.
Film Use the style: Ran. Dir. Akira Kurosawa. USA. 1985.
Webpage Use the following style, giving the web address within angle brackets:
The Walt Whitman Hypertext Archive. Ed. Kenneth M. Price and Ed Folsom. 1997–1998. 27 Apr. 2003. <http://www.whitmanarchive.org/archive1/works/>.
Bradshaw, Peter. “Film review: Toy Story 3” Guardian.co.uk 15 July 2010. 23 July 2010. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2010/jul/15/toy-story-3-review/>.
FIGURES AND TABLES
Figures Figures should be numbered (in arabic numerals) and uploaded as a separate file. These figures should be listed on a separate page at the end of the text in the order in which they should appear, along with the figure caption detailing the source of the figure and, if necessary, any copyright information. For information on file formats, image resolution and permissions, see our Instructions for Authors.
Tables Please provide any tables in a separate file, with an explanatory legend, and indicate where the table should appear in the printed article.
Other mediaAdaptation welcomes the submission of supplementary material in other forms of media, for example audio or video clips. Please contact the editorial office directly if you are interested in submitting supplementary media files. Note that authors will need to obtain permission from the copyright holder to use any material of this kind.