Creative And Critical Thinking Ppt Presentation

Not everything that can be counted counts,
and not everything that counts can be counted.
� Albert Einstein

Nine-tenths of tactics are certain and taught in the books;
but, the irrational tenth is like the kingfisher flashing across the pool.
This is the test of generals.
Success can only be ensured by instinct sharpened by thought.
At the crisis, it is as natural as a reflex.
� T. E. Lawrence, in The Science of Guerilla Warfare

The nation that makes a great distinction between its scholars and its warriors
will have its thinking done by cowards and its fighting done by fools.
� Thucydides

  • See also critical thinking
  • See also decision making
  • See also strategic art
  • See also military theory page
  • See also strategic communication page at the Cyberspace & Information Operations Study Center
  • See also DoD and service leadership competency models at Strategic Leadership Studies for competencies to be addressed by military education
  • See also the strategic corporal and the three-block war regarding the need for strategic thinking at all levels in today's and tomorrow's conflicts
    • The lines separating the levels of war, and distinguishing combatant from "non-combatant," will blur, and adversaries, confounded by our "conventional" superiority, will resort to asymmetrical means to redress the imbalance. Further complicating the situation will be the ubiquitous media whose presence will mean that all future conflicts will be acted out before an international audience. [Krulak]
  • The perils of bad strategy, by Rumelt, in the McKinsey Quarterly, (2011, 1)
    • Another sign of bad strategy is fuzzy strategic objectives. One form this problem can take is a scrambled mess of things to accomplish�a dog�s dinner of goals. A long list of things to do, often mislabeled as strategies or objectives, is not a strategy. It is just a list of things to do. Such lists usually grow out of planning meetings in which a wide variety of stakeholders suggest things they would like to see accomplished. Rather than focus on a few important items, the group sweeps the whole day�s collection into the strategic plan. Then, in recognition that it is a dog�s dinner, the label �long term� is added, implying that none of these things need be done today.
    • Bad strategy has many roots, but I�ll focus on two here: the inability to choose and template-style planning�filling in the blanks with �vision, mission, values, strategies.�
  • Developing Air Force Strategists: Change Culture, Reverse Careerism (local copy), by Bethel et al, Joint Force Quarterly, 3rd Quarter 2010
    • How we got to the point where our best and brightest are able to offer only tired and uncreative strategies is not as important as what we need to do now. We must develop, nurture, and promote strategic thinkers. We define strategic thinkers as those officers who understand the inherent linkages between the abstract and concrete, between thinking and doing, and who eschew old checklists for new ideas and apply those ideas to potential future situations.
    • The Air Force should seek out those officers who have a balanced brain�those who can not only intuit well and rapidly, but who also understand when it may be necessary to look for theories that can be generalized. Instead, the Service teaches �people, processes, and products� that make up the Air Operations Center at its command and staff college.
    • There is no career path for strategists or strategic thinkers, and indeed there appears to be a trend away from intellectualism.
    • Rather than disdaining intellectualism, senior leaders should be encouraged to read recent scholarship on strategic decisionmaking and ask themselves if they can learn something there. In addition to the long list of histories of command and leadership, Air Force senior leaders should have to read Scott Page�s The Difference, Malcolm Gladwell�s Blink and Outliers, James Surowiecki�s The Wisdom of Crowds, and most importantly, Alec Fisher�s The Logic of Real Arguments.
    • The balance between Gladwell and Surowiecki should be lessons that all senior officers learn en route to becoming strategists. Giovanni Gavetti and Jan Rivkin, in How Strategists Really Think, tell us that one of the greatest mistakes leaders make is applying the wrong experiential analogies to the situation at hand. In today�s military, senior leaders disdain empirical evidence for �gut-based� decisions made quickly in high-visibility situations. As Watts mentions, too many of our leaders go on experience and apply lessons from the past to the problem at hand. The current problem, however, is rarely like any they previously faced; thus, the lessons they bring forward are not relevant. Experience is important, but for senior leadership we should seek out those who can adapt to the situation no matter what it is. Effective strategists also use academic and intellectual rigor en route to solving problems�not just effective gut-checking.
    • We mentioned earlier the trend toward relying on experience rather than critical thinking and inductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning is not hard merely for military officers, but for almost everyone. In Taleb�s The Black Swan, he argues that because humans rely so much on past experience, they cannot conceive of a situation that has not happened before.
    • Inductive reasoning is only one attribute of successful strategists. They must also exhibit:
      • creativity
      • curiosity
      • confidence
      • high intelligence without subject fixation
      • ability to collate and make sense out of massive amounts of data
      • great and diverse intellect
      • thorough knowledge of the means
      • intuitive understanding of the ends.
    • We place creativity at the top because crafting strategies, like war itself, is an art. We posit that educating an officer to be a strategist is for naught if the first four traits are not present.
    • We must demand more of our officers�not in terms of time or energy (most give more than their fair share whether they have it or not), but in terms of how they think.
    • Let us be clear on one point: deductive thinking is required in campaign planning and in airpower theory, especially when it comes to establishing quantifiable metrics and measuring against them. Pressed up against the realities of war, deductive thinkers do a great job killing the enemy, but it is inductive thinkers who master how to discourage enemy forces from wanting to continue to fight. And it is inductive thinkers who are best able to determine how to achieve victory on a variety of battlefields against innumerable conflicts and challenges. The metrics to measure each are very different. One is an empirical count while the other cannot be measured.
  • Growing Strategic Leaders for Future Conflict, by Salmoni et al, Parameters, Spring 2010
  • Schools for Strategy: Teaching Strategy for 21st Century Conflict (local copy), by Gray, SSI, Nov 2009
  • Research, Writing, and the Mind of the Strategist (local copy), by Foster, in Joint Force Quarterly, Spring 1996
    • Ideas and the ability to generate them seem increasingly likely, in fact, to be more important than weapons, economic potential, diplomatic acumen, or technological advantage in determining who exercises global leadership and enjoys superpower status. Thus it is imperative to develop, nurture, and engage strategic thinkers at all levels�critical, creative, broadgauged visionaries with the intellect to dissect the status quo, grasp the big picture, discern important relationships among events, generate imaginative possibilities for action, and operate easily in the conceptual realm.
    • Almost by definition, strategic thinkers are broadly educated, not narrowly trained. They seek not simply direction but to grapple with the underlying questions of whether, why, and what if.
    • A broad-based education expands�and fuels the self-guided growth of�one�s horizons. It develops the intellect and inculcates the spirit of inquiry for a lifelong pursuit of learning. The measure of education, far from being the level or even the sum of formal schooling, rests more in the degree of open-mindedness and active mental engagement it engenders.
  • Keeping the Strategic Flame (local copy), by Builder, in Joint Force Quarterly, Winter 1996-97
    • The current demand by the military for welldefined objectives is eloquent evidence of how far our thinking has drifted toward the tactical domain. The insistence on operationally planning based on enemy capabilities, while tactically prudent, is the antithesis of strategic thinking, which should concentrate on enemy vulnerabilities. Although defeating enemy forces may sometimes be necessary to achieve our objectives, it is not always the Nation�s or the military�s best option.
  • Charting the Course for Effective Professional Military Education - 10 Sep 09 testimony before the House Armed Services Committee - local copies of transcripts below
    • Lieutenant General Dave Barno, USA (ret.) - Director, Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies
      • Given the notable shortcomings many ascribe to U.S. strategic thinking over the last decade -- some deeply involving senior military leaders -- we must seriously question whether our program of PME today is on the right track. In my estimation, we are drifting off course, and if uncorrected, our marked advantage in the intellectual capital of warfare, in the face of an increasingly uncertain future, is at risk.
      • Thus, for almost all senior officers -- all our generals and admirals -- the final fifteen to twenty years of their career is almost entirely largely lacking in extended developmental experiences. This fact becomes more troubling when correlated with the reality that decision-making and complexity at the senior levels -- especially regarding strategic and grand strategic issues -- is immensely more complex and uncertain than the relatively simpler worlds of tactics and operations. So-called "wicked problems" unresponsive to set-piece solutions abound.
    • Dr. Williamson Murray - Senior Fellow, Institute for Defense Analyses
      • The cost of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan suggests that the United States can no longer afford an approach resting on the comfortable assumption that commanders can acquire skills on the fly to deal with the new and different complexities that each conflict will bring in its wake. As General James Mattis suggested in an email to a professor at National War College, �We have been fighting on this planet for 5,000 years and we should take advantage of that experience. �Winging it� and filling body bags as we sort out what works reminds us of the moral dictates and the cost of competence in our profession.� The depressing story of our flawed efforts to handle a burgeoning insurgency during the post-invasion period in Iraq suggests that too many senior officers had never studied the lessons of Vietnam, much less the experiences of the British in their efforts to defeat the 1920 insurgency in Iraq.
    • Dr. John Allen Williams - President, Inter-University Seminar on the Armed Forces and Society
      • Given the complexity of the future threat environment and the importance of the issues involved � military threats and the proper relation between the military and the society it serves �the Skelton Report�s call for the development of strategists and the encouragement of strategic thinking is increasingly relevant. One should note that these are not quite the same thing. Only a small number of officers will develop into strategists of the first rank, but these are so important that the PME system must do as much as it can to encourage them to develop their talents to the maximum degree possible.
  • Developing Strategic Leaders for the 21st Century (local copy), by McCausland, SSI, Feb 2008
  • Strategy and the Strategic Way of Thinking (local copy), commentary by Owens, Naval War College Review, Autumn 2007
  • Educating for Strategic Thinking in the SOF Community: Considerations and a Proposal (local copy), by Yarger, JSOU Report 07-2, Jan 2007
  • Prospects for Strategic Thinking and Innovation: a Survey of War College Students (local copy), by Snow, Army War College, 15 Mar 2006
    • The survey reveals room for improvement in current levels of dialogue, critical, innovative and strategic thinking. Unless changed, the current time and resource constraints will likely frustrate deep thinkers, stifle the creative and hinder the process of organizational learning and adaptation. The goal of achieving advantage through transformational processes is at risk.
  • Learning from the Stones: a Go Approach to Mastering China's Strategic Concept, Shi (local copy), by Lai, Strategic Studies Institute, May 2004
    • The author introduces a new approach to learning about the different ways of strategic thinking and interaction in Chinese culture. It is through learning the Chinese board game called go. This game is a living reflection of Chinese philosophy, culture, strategic thinking, warfare, military tactics, and diplomatic bargaining. The author also sheds light on the remarkable connection between go and the strategic concepts in Sun Tzu�s Art of War.
    • A modest claim is made in this writing that a little knowledge of go will take U.S. leaders a long way in understanding the essence of the Chinese way of war and diplomacy.
  • Strategic Thinking chapter from Strategic Leadership and Decision Making, from National Defense University
    • A leader can develop more effective strategic thinking skills. This is done by exploiting any opportunity to better understand yourself, how you think about complex problems, and how to go about making decisions. This understanding of yourself is critical, since this information that forms the foundation for developing your strategic thinking capabilities necessary in the strategic environment. The more you understand yourself, the more control you have over both the process, and the products you produce.
    • Virtually all of you will be required to serve in strategic environments. This means there will be many opportunities for you to function as a strategic thinker or advisor. You must, therefore, continue to develop a new and broader set of thinking skills. The SLDM course, and the overall ICAF experience have been designed to help you understand and develop effective strategic thinking skills to solve the complex, fast changing, unstructured problems you will soon encounter.
  • Attack by Stratagem, from The Art of War, by Sun Tzu
    • Hence to fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy's resistance without fighting.
    • Hence the saying: If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle.
  • Logic will get you from A to B.
    Imagination will take you everywhere.
    � Albert Einstein

    Reasonable people adapt themselves to the world.
    Unreasonable people attempt to adapt the world to themselves.
    All progress, therefore, depends on unreasonable people.
    � George Bernhard Shaw

    If the world were perfect, it wouldn�t be.
    � Yogi Berra

    A good hockey player plays where the puck is.
    A great hockey player plays where the puck is going to be.
    � Wayne Gretzky

    Creativity is thinking up new things. Innovation is doing new things.
    � Theodore Levitt

    The only thing harder than getting a new idea into the military is getting an old one out.
    � Liddell Hart

    Anxiety is the hand maiden of creativity.
    � T. S. Eliot

    The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinions.
    � James Russel Lowell

    As the births of living creatures, at first, are ill-shapen: so are all Innovations, which are the births of time.
    � Francis Bacon

    He that will not apply new remedies must expect new evils; for time is the greatest innovator.
    � Francis Bacon

    In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists.
    � Eric Hoffer

    The world owes all of its onward impulses to men ill at ease. The happy man inevitably confines himself within ancient limits.
    � Nathaniel Hawthorne

    I want to stay as close to the edge as I can without going over. Out on the edge you see all kinds of things you can't see from the center.
    � Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.

    In the age of information sciences, the most valuable asset is knowledge, which is a creation of human imagination and creativity. We were among the last to comprehend this truth and we will be paying for this oversight for many years to come.
    � Mikhail Gorbachev, 1990

    Innovation by definition will not be accepted at first. It takes repeated attempts, endless demonstrations, monotonous rehearsals before innovation can be accepted and internalized by an organization. This requires 'courageous patience'.
    � Warren Bennis

  • See John Boyd and the OODA loop - especially the articles and briefings by Osinga
  • See also intuition
  • See also Creative Problem-Solving (CPS) process
  • See also Innovation Adoption-Diffusion on Transformation of War page
  • See also Innovation Adoption-Diffusion on CSAT Future Studies page
  • Global Innovation Index (GII) - with ranking of countries
  • Joint Chiefs Chairman Urges Military Innovation
  • Eric Berlow and Sean Gourley: Mapping ideas worth spreading - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked)
    • "What do 24,000 ideas look like? Ecologist Eric Berlow and physicist Sean Gourley apply algorithms to the entire archive of TEDx Talks, taking us on a stimulating visual tour to show how ideas connect globally."
  • �Doing the right thing� versus �Doing things right� � A Framework for Post-ORI Innovation (local copy), by Gillen, in Air Force Print News Today, 22 Aug 2012
    • Unfortunately, we're more focused today on "doing things right" than "doing the right thing." This has become apparent as we prepare for the upcoming inspection. "Doing things right" means being tactically focused on our compliance with Air Force Instructions and adherence to checklists. "Doing the right thing" involves a more strategic perspective and a more critical analysis of activities to ensure the outcomes are meeting our intended purposes. Through a process of strategic innovation we can transition from "doing things right" to "doing the right thing," a shift which will ultimately result in organizational efficiencies and increased job satisfaction.
  • Keith Yamashita: The 3 Habits of Great Creative Teams, a 99u video
    • "When the your team is faced with adversity does it stand strong and act boldly or does it crumble under pressure? Based on his work with over 1000 teams, Keith Yamashita shares his insights about great collaborative environments including: have an awareness beyond your day-to-day, respect the unique talents of your team members, and actively cultivate meaningful one-on-one relationships."
  • Creative Thinking for Senior Leaders: An essay on creative thinking for military professionals (local copy), by Allen, U.S. Army War College, May 2012
  • Creative Thinking for Individuals and Teams: An essay on creative thinking for military professionals, by Allen, U.S. Army War College, 2009
    • quick overview (13 pages) of theories, theorists, processes, attributes, and more
  • Developing Creative and Critical Thinkers (local copy), by Allen and Gerras, in Military Review, Nov-Dec 2009
  • �Adapt or Die� - The Imperative for a Culture of Innovation in the United States Army (local copy), by Fastabend and Simpson, U.S. Army
    • Our �competitors� are living, thinking, and adaptive adversaries who mean to destroy us and the society we defend. Our choice is quite clear: �Adapt or Die.� Failure does not mean Chapter 11 and an updated resume. Failure means death and destruction for ourselves, our comrades, and all that we cherish.
  • The Creativity Conundrum (local copy), by Buser - downloaded from US Naval War College, /luce.nt/, "A Journal of National Security Studies," 2012
    • The ability to be creative, or think creatively, has long been recognized as a core component to successful leadership at all levels of command. Especially at the strategic level, the ability to think creatively and adapt to changing circumstances is often the difference between life and death, victory and defeat. ... And despite general agreement to this fact by most senior leaders, the military on the whole is ill-equipped for producing leaders who are adaptable, flexible, and who can think creatively. Rather, its personnel makeup, focus on operations, and sheer bureaucracy all combine to create and reward leaders who are risk-averse, conformists, and good at maintaining the status quo.
  • How Switching Tasks Maximizes Creative Thinking, by Jarrett, at 99U
  • Top 10 Ways to Create Innovation in the Workplace (local copy), downloaded from the 3rd Marine Logistics Group
  • Center of Innovation (CoI), US Air Force Academy
    • "The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate funded Center of Innovation (CoI) at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) was established in 2008 and has become a leader in championing game-changing innovations for the US Government (USG) by leveraging unique public-private partnerships."
    • "The CoI has become the 'sandbox' for government agencies, private industry giants, and academia to perform collaborative research, share expertise, and shape technologies within the private sector to fit government needs"
    • DHS pamphlet talking about the CoI (local copy)
  • NASA Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation
    • "Established in 2011, the CoECI serves to advance the use of open innovation methods across the federal government, in particular, the use of prizes and challenge. The CoECI provides guidance to other federal agencies and NASA centers on implementing open innovation initiatives from problem definition, to incentive design, to post- submission evaluation of solutions."
  • Office of Innovation - Office of Naval Research
  • Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC)
    • Navy Center for Innovation (NCFI)
    • Shaping Navy Culture: A Campaign Plan for 2025 (local copy), by Tyler, NWDC White Paper, 14 Feb 2012
      • This white paper introduces a concept to change Navy organizational culture into an innovative, intellectually agile institution. This paper examines current conditions, introduces an approach, identifies themes, and proposes actions to build momentum for the concept.
    • Innovator�s Guide (local copy, 3.8 Mb), from the Navy Center for Innovation, Navy Warfare Development Command, 29 Aug 2012
      • From Navy Warfare Development Command Public Affairs:
        • Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC) has published "The Innovator's Guide," Aug. 29, to help innovators of all ages - but particularly the Navy's junior leaders - become more innovative and facilitate the transformation of good ideas into real warfighting capabilities.
        • As the Navy Center for Innovation, NWDC is spearheading a campaign to reinvigorate a culture of innovation within the Navy, and the guide is an important component of that endeavor.
        • In addition to defining innovation and why it is important, the guide provides advice on how to identify and define problems that need solving, proven techniques for finding creative solutions, and how to move these ideas through a large organization to drive towards implementation.
        • "Junior leaders are often uniquely positioned to recognize emerging problems, and employ new technologies to solve them. It's up to us to give them the tools and the open channels to be successful," said Rear Adm. Terry B. Kraft, commander, NWDC.
        • In his introduction, Kraft challenges the junior leaders to think deeply, question continuously, debate vigorously, read broadly, write boldly and never give up on a good idea.
        • To download The Innovator's Guide, visit Videos and transcripts from NWDC's Maritime Innovation Symposium and Junior Leader Innovation Symposium are also available at the website.
      • If file size is an issue, Innovator�s Guide - Final Draft (local copy, 321 Kb), from the Navy Center for Innovation, Navy Warfare Development Command, 4 June 2012
    • Maritime Innovation Symposium, 13-14 Mar 2012
    • Junior Leader Innovation Symposium (JLIS), 6 Jun 2012
    • Pacific Rim Innovation Symposium, 10-11 Oct 2012
  • Will It Work Here? A Decisionmaker�s Guide to Adopting Innovations (local copy), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Sep 2008
    • medical focus, but contains many questions every organization should ask about adoption of potential innovations
  • Military Innovation in the Rise and Fall of Great Powers: Lessons for America (local copy), by Taylor, NPS thesis, June 2011
    • A military�s ability to adapt its organization, doctrine, and technology strategy to meet the threats of its time influences the state�s capacity to maintain great power status. This thesis uses a historical overview of military innovation among great powers throughout history to draw lessons for the U.S. military today.
    • ... Finally, and most importantly, this study finds it essential to foster a climate and institutional culture receptive to innovation.
    • A true meritocracy would allow leaders to promote the most promising soldiers and officers despite their inability to meet any time-in-service requirements. The "year-group" promotion system codifies a rigid bureaucratic structure that ensures slow change and little innovation.
  • How PowerPoint Stifles Understanding, Creativity, and Innovation Within Your Organization, by Zweibelson, in Small Wars Journal, 4 Sep 2012 - includes eight recommendations at the end, to "restore the briefer as a critical thinker"
    • PowerPoint provides a useful vehicle for sharing and developing concepts among military professionals in a variety of venues. Unfortunately, the U.S. military tends to lose track of the supportive context for PowerPoint and instead shackles organizations to institutional processes and rigid �group-think.� We tend to burden our military professionals with an exhausting and high-maintenance requirement to churn out repetitive and non-explanatory slide decks for nearly every conceivable information requirement. Rarely do we conduct a meeting without the ever-present bright projection of PowerPoint upon a screen.
    • When you attend a briefing and the majority of slides and material attempt to reduce, measure, categorize, or describe something, we are often merely admiring the problem.
    • Instead of thinking about why something is occurring, we are usually required to answer precise information that satisfies a descriptive (WHAT-centric) procedure instead of a critical line of inquiry. Many military professionals refer to this as �feeding the beast� in PowerPoint-centric organizations, where we openly acknowledge that our own hierarchy often demands volumes of often meaningless or irrelevant information for illusionary pretexts. If descriptive thinking blinds your organization to critical and creative thinking, then PowerPoint is the drug of choice for continuing the reductionist and highly tacticized mentality across an organization that fears uncertainty.
    • Additionally, a recent trend of cramming four slides onto one �quad chart� slide is another work-around that compresses a larger slide show into fewer yet more cluttered slides and supports the �quantity over quality� tension. This recent staff technique defeats the purpose of a quadrant chart that uses two separate tensions in an overlapping geometric structure to demonstrate patterns and explore complex relationships. �Quad charts� are not interrelated if you apply one simple test. By removing one quadrant of a true �quad chart�, you will render the entire slide incomplete. Each quadrant in a quad chart should systemically relate to the other quadrants in terms of context. If you are only removing one component while the three remaining quadrants maintain their coherence, your staff has merely shoved ten pounds of dirt into a five pound bag for you, by condensing four slides into one. This reduces total slide numbers, but does little to improve organizational learning.
    • Many military organizations use �read-ahead� packets that provide an advanced copy of the PowerPoint briefing slides in advance of the briefing. In theory, this implies an alternate route for information sharing that, when combined with a briefing, could function in tandem. In practice, this requires two commitments that are rarely met. First, all attendees must endeavor to actually read the �read-ahead� packet. This prepares an audience to enter a briefing cognizant of the topics, context, and prepared to offer relevant discourse to drive emergent thought. Secondly, the briefer must resist using any slides in the �read-ahead� except for ancillary or expository reasons during the brief. Simply following the exact slide format as the �read-ahead� drags those that invested time to read it earlier back through redundant information, and reward those that came to the meeting unprepared.
  • Innovating the Future: From Ideas to Adoption, by Denning, in The Futurist, Jan-Feb 2012 - "Futurists and innovators can teach each other lessons to help their ideas succeed." - discusses the items below and more
    • Three most common methods used by futurists
      • Revelation of current realities
      • Extrapolation of trends
      • Scenarios
    • Eight innovation practices
      • Sensing
      • Envisioning
      • Offering
      • Adopting
      • Sustaining
      • Executing
      • Leading
      • Embodying
  • NASA's ASK magazine
    • The Innovation Paradox (local copy), by Hoffman, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 41, Winter 2011 - "Sometimes organizational 'support' kills good new ideas."
      • Many organizations live and die by good new ideas. The challenge they face is to cultivate good ideas by giving innovators just the right blend of freedom and support. One simple approach that is not taken often enough is to let the innovators themselves decide how the organization can help them develop their ideas. A manager asking, �What do you need from me?� has a good chance of finding the sweet spot between no support (�Do what you want as long as I don�t know about it�) and idea-killing interference.
    • Expecting the Unexpected (local copy), by Frasqueri-Molina, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 43, Summer 2011 - creating a mitigation plan to deal with unexpected risks
      • The author developed a risk-mitigation plan to reestablish order from chaos.
        1. Remain calm.
        2. Halt the entire project or just the affected work momentarily and let everyone take a break.
        3. Immediately gather the resolution team, which consists of the project manager and any of the people who can offer solutions; meet privately.
        4. Assess risk impact.
        5. Brainstorm solutions.
        6. Choose a solution.
        7. Obtain project sponsor approval.
        8. Communicate the solution to the entire team, resume project, resolve risk.
    • Why Wikis at NASA? (local copy), by Verville et al, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 44, Fall 2011
      • Wikis are used across NASA for collaboration
      • Some of the critical practices and principles for successful wikis are listed below.
        • Wikis work best when they solve a problem that is evident to most of a group.
        • Wiki use needs to replace an existing work process, not add to work.
        • Wikis need advocates and advertising.
        • Seeding the wiki with valuable content helps jump-start the process; with a blank page, no one knows where to start.
        • Gradual growth is fine, and starting small helps a core group of users become accustomed to the wiki (think pilot study).
        • A wiki that serves a niche need is okay; it does not need to be all things to all people.
  • Defense Science Board (DSB) - check reports section for reports like the following
  • Innovation Versus Adaptability: Seizing the Initiative Through Creative Thinking Versus Reacting to the Enemy (local copy), by Grothe, SAMS paper, 2009
    • Leadership must be committed to learning, underwrite experimentation, and create an environment that generates creative thought and innovation. Doctrine must incorporate more aspects of innovation, creative and critical thinking and innovative leadership. The Army�s training constructs produce adaptive leaders, but must start to assess innovation as well, in order to generate this within the force as well. The most critical area the Army must focus change in is within Professional Military Education for field grade officers.
  • Understanding Innovation (local copy), by Williams, in Military Review, Jul-Aug 2009
    • Field Manual 1-0, The Army, states that �Army leaders are continuing to foster creative thinking.� They are �challenging inflexible ways of thinking, removing impediments to institutional innovation, and underwriting the risks associated with bold change.�
    • Perhaps this statement is true, but given the contemporary use of the word �innovation,� it is also meaningless. Claiming to be innovative carries about as much weight as declaring a love for puppies; it�s easy to say and unpopular to challenge. When words represent some indistinct idea, they are susceptible to reinvention or distortion with potentially significant unintended consequences.
  • Innovation Starvation, by Stephenson, in World Policy Journal, Fall 2011
    • Still, I worry that our inability to match the achievements of the 1960s space program might be symptomatic of a general failure of our society to get big things done.
    • Innovation can�t happen without accepting the risk that it might fail. The vast and radical innovations of the mid-20th century took place in a world that, in retrospect, looks insanely dangerous and unstable.
    • Today�s belief in ineluctable certainty is the true innovation-killer of our age. In this environment, the best an audacious manager can do is to develop small improvements to existing systems�climbing the hill, as it were, toward a local maximum, trimming fat, eking out the occasional tiny innovation�like city planners painting bicycle lanes on the streets as a gesture toward solving our energy problems. Any strategy that involves crossing a valley�accepting short-term losses to reach a higher hill in the distance�will soon be brought to a halt by the demands of a system that celebrates short-term gains and tolerates stagnation, but condemns anything else as failure. In short, a world where big stuff can never get done.
  • How We Think: Thinking Critically and Creatively and How Military Professionals Can Do it Better, by McConnell et al, in Small Wars Journal, 16 Sep 2011
    • This essay will summarize how cognitive theorists have described critical and creative thinking in general, and how some military practitioners have applied them. In doing so, this essay will propose principles of critical and creative thinking applicable to the military profession to provide a common vocabulary that describes the type of thinking we do. To expand and improve critical and creative thinking, military professionals need a common vocabulary that accurately describes the very thinking we are to expand and improve on.
  • Sir Ken Robinson
    • Sir Ken Robinson: Do schools kill creativity?, a video, 2006 - EXCELLENT 20 minutes
      • Sir Ken Robinson makes an entertaining and profoundly moving case for creating an education system that nurtures (rather than undermines) creativity.
    • Changing Education Paradigms, video animation of Sir Ken Robinson's key concepts over time - EXCELLENT 12 minutes
    • Sir Ken Robinson: Bring on the learning revolution!, a video, 2010 follow-up to the 2006 talk - EXCELLENT 20 minutes
      • In this poignant, funny follow-up to his fabled 2006 talk, Sir Ken Robinson makes the case for a radical shift from standardized schools to personalized learning -- creating conditions where kids' natural talents can flourish.
    • Sir Ken Robinson: How to escape education's death valley , a video, 2013, from the TED TV special on education
      • Sir Ken Robinson outlines 3 principles crucial for the human mind to flourish -- and how current education culture works against them. In a funny, stirring talk he tells us how to get out of the educational "death valley" we now face, and how to nurture our youngest generations with a climate of possibility.
      • "There are three principles on which human life flourishes, and they are contradicted by the culture of education under which most teachers have to labor and most students have to endure."
        • "The first is this, that human beings are naturally different and diverse."
          • Education under No Child Left Behind is based on not diversity but conformity. What schools are encouraged to do is to find out what kids can do across a very narrow spectrum of achievement.
        • "The second principle that drives human life flourishing is curiosity."
          • So in place of curiosity, what we have is a culture of compliance. Our children and teachers are encouraged to follow routine algorithms rather than to excite that power of imagination and curiosity.
        • "And the third principle is this: that human life is inherently creative."
          • We all create our own lives through this restless process of imagining alternatives and possibilities, and what one of the roles of education is to awaken and develop these powers of creativity. Instead, what we have is a culture of standardization.
  • Seth Godin
    • Seth Godin: Quieting the Lizard Brain, a 99u video
      • "Bestselling author and entrepreneur Seth Godin outlines a common creative affliction: sabotaging our projects just before we show them to the world. Godin targets our "lizard brain" as the source of these primal doubts, and implores us to "thrash at the beginning" of projects so that we can ship on time and on budget."
      • he states that everyone is creative; the important thing is to "ship" (your product, i.e., do something with your idea)
    • Seth Godin: How to get your ideas to spread - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked)
      • "In a world of too many options and too little time, our obvious choice is to just ignore the ordinary stuff. Marketing guru Seth Godin spells out why, when it comes to getting our attention, bad or bizarre ideas are more successful than boring ones"
  • other videos - most are 6-15 minutes
    • Matt Ridley: When ideas have sex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked)
      • "At TEDGlobal 2010, author Matt Ridley shows how, throughout history, the engine of human progress has been the meeting and mating of ideas to make new ideas. It's not important how clever individuals are, he says; what really matters is how smart the collective brain is.
      • Matt Ridley argues that, through history, the engine of human progress and prosperity has been, and is, "ideas having sex with each other."
    • Erik Brynjolfsson: The key to growth? Race with the machines - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked)
      • "As machines take on more jobs, many find themselves out of work or with raises indefinitely postponed. Is this the end of growth? No, says Erik Brynjolfsson -- it�s simply the growing pains of a radically reorganized economy. A riveting case for why big innovations are ahead of us � if we think of computers as our teammates. Be sure to watch the opposing viewpoint from Robert Gordon."
    • Robert Gordon: The death of innovation, the end of growth - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked)
      • "The US economy has been expanding wildly for two centuries. Are we witnessing the end of growth? Economist Robert Gordon lays out 4 reasons US growth may be slowing, detailing factors like epidemic debt and growing inequality, which could move the US into a period of stasis we can't innovate our way out of. Be sure to watch the opposing viewpoint from Erik Brynjolfsson."
    • Elizabeth Gilbert: Your elusive creative genius - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked)
      • "Elizabeth Gilbert muses on the impossible things we expect from artists and geniuses -- and shares the radical idea that, instead of the rare person "being" a genius, all of us "have" a genius. It's a funny, personal and surprisingly moving talk."
    • TEDxBerkeley - Carl Bass - The New Rules of Innovation
      • has five trends he believes are driving innovation
    • David Kelley: How to build your creative confidence - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked)
      • "Is your school or workplace divided into "creatives" versus practical people? Yet surely, David Kelley suggests, creativity is not the domain of only a chosen few. Telling stories from his legendary design career and his own life, he offers ways to build the confidence to create... (From The Design Studio session at TED2012, guest-curated by Chee Pearlman and David Rockwell.)"
    • Adam Savage: How simple ideas lead to scientific discoveries - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked)
      • "Adam Savage walks through two spectacular examples of profound scientific discoveries that came from simple, creative methods anyone could have followed -- Eratosthenes' calculation of the Earth's circumference around 200 BC and Hippolyte Fizeau's measurement of the speed of light in 1849."
    • Regina Dugan: From mach-20 glider to humming bird drone - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked)
      • "What would you attempt to do if you knew you could not fail?" asks Regina Dugan, then director of DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. In this breathtaking talk she describes some of the extraordinary projects -- a robotic hummingbird, a prosthetic arm controlled by thought, and, well, the internet -- that her agency has created by not worrying that they might fail."
    • Steven Johnson: Where good ideas come from - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked)
      • "People often credit their ideas to individual "Eureka!" moments. But Steven Johnson shows how history tells a different story. His fascinating tour takes us from the "liquid networks" of London's coffee houses to Charles Darwin's long, slow hunch to today's high-velocity web." - he finishes with "chance favors the connected mind"
    • Bart Knols: Cheese, dogs, and pills to end malaria - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked)
      • "We can use a mosquito's own instincts against her. At TEDxMaastricht speaker Bart Knols demos the imaginative solutions his team is developing to fight malaria -- including limburger cheese and a deadly pill."
    • Edward Tenner: Unintended consequences - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked)
      • "Every new invention changes the world -- in ways both intentional and unexpected. Historian Edward Tenner tells stories that illustrate the under-appreciated gap between our ability to innovate and our ability to foresee the consequences."
    • Charles Leadbeater: The era of open innovation - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked)
      • "In this deceptively casual talk, Charles Leadbeater weaves a tight argument that innovation isn't just for professionals anymore. Passionate amateurs, using new tools, are creating products and paradigms that companies can't."
      • "A researcher at the London think tank Demos, Charles Leadbeater was early to notice the rise of "amateur innovation" -- great ideas from outside the traditional walls, from people who suddenly have the tools to collaborate, innovate and make their expertise known."
    • Clay Shirky on institutions vs. collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked)
      • "In this prescient 2005 talk, Clay Shirky shows how closed groups and companies will give way to looser networks where small contributors have big roles and fluid cooperation replaces rigid planning."
    • Howard Rheingold on collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked)
      • "Howard Rheingold talks about the coming world of collaboration, participatory media and collective action -- and how Wikipedia is really an outgrowth of our natural human instinct to work as a group."
    • Sunni Brown: Doodlers, unite! - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked)
      • "Studies show that sketching and doodling improve our comprehension -- and our creative thinking. So why do we still feel embarrassed when we're caught doodling in a meeting? Sunni Brown says: Doodlers, unite! She makes the case for unlocking your brain via pad and pen."
  • Jonah Lehrer: The Science of Insight Creation, 40 min. video from Jonah Lehrer - contributing editor of Wired and author of How We Decide
    • "Science is getting harder. Finding notable, new facts is getting harder. So how can we increase our capacity for breakthroughs and insights? What can new disciplines like neuroscience teach us about the innovation process? Jonah Lehrer explores creativity from a scientific perspective and discusses questions such as why we have our best ideas in the shower."
    • talks about the "feeling of knowing" such as the tip of the tongue phenomenon
    • talks about why brainstorming doesn't work - cites studies showing that allowing criticism leads to 7 times the number of useful ideas 24 hours later after folks have had time to think on their own outside the group
    • we can all imagine more, if only we know how
  • 21st Century Enlightenment, RSAnimate talk by Matthew Taylor - how the idea of a new enlightenment can help us meet the challenges we now face
  • Innovate or Die: Innovation and Technology for Special Operations (local copy), by Spulak, JSOU Report 10-7, Dec 2010
  • - with principles, techniques, tools, etc.
  • Creativity Techniques - short descriptions of a whole passel of techniques
  • Roots of Innovation (local copy, 2.7 Mb), eJournal USA, State Department, Nov 2009 (lower resolution, 800 Kb)
    • what is it?
    • which cultures foster it?
    • the global geography of innovation
    • how do complementary skills help?
    • secrets of collaboration
    • 2009 innovation index by country ranking
  • The Art of Design: a Design Methodology (local copy), by Banach, Military Review, Mar-Apr 2009
  • Predicting Military Innovation, by Isaacson et al, RAND, 1999
    • Although military technology is increasingly available and affordable, not all states have the capacity to improve military effectiveness by acquiring hardware. Integrative difficulties � in command structures, doctrine and tactics, training, and support � are common in the developing world, and many states will have to find some level of innovation to overcome such difficulties if they are to use military technologies effectively. This annotated briefing documents a research effort aimed at understanding and predicting how militaries may improve their battlefield effectiveness. The briefing first analyzes military innovation conceptually and then formulates a framework for predicting the likelihood of innovative success. The research synthesizes a broad literature on innovation and provides a useful tool for assessing future military developments.
  • Brain and Creativity Institute, University of Southern California
    • The mission of the Brain and Creativity Institute is to gather new knowledge about the human emotions, decision-making, memory, and communication, from a neurological perspective, and to apply this knowledge to the solution of problems in the biomedical and sociocultural arenas.
  • From Stone to Silicon: A Brief Survey of Innovation, by Husick, Foreign Policy Research Institute, Oct 2008 - top 25 innovations of all time
  • Toward More Innovative Program Management (local copy), by Perino, in Defense Acquisition Review Journal, Feb-Mar 2005 - results of research into the science and psychology of innovation - using MBTI and FourSight assessment tools - includes formula for MBTI Creativity Index
  • Stimulating Innovation (local copy), by Kostoff, Office of Naval Research
  • Science and Technology Innovation (local copy), by Kostoff, Office of Naval Research - compares literature-based and workshop-based approaches for stimulating innovation
  • Communication, Management Benchmark Study (local copy), Dept of Energy -- includes chapters on networking, alliances, organizational culture, and innovation
    • Innovation, especially organizational, short chapter, covers a lot
    • Creativity, how to cultivate, short chapter, covers a lot
  • Ввиду того что компьютеры, действующие по принципу грубой силы, отыскивают шифр путем изучения открытого текста на предмет наличия в нем узнаваемых словосочетаний, Харне предложил шифровальный алгоритм, который, помимо шифрования, постоянно видоизменял открытый текст. Теоретически постоянная мутация такого рода должна привести к тому, что компьютер, атакующий шифр, никогда не найдет узнаваемое словосочетание и не «поймет», нашел ли он искомый ключ. Вся эта концепция чем-то напоминала идею колонизации Марса - на интеллектуальном уровне вполне осуществимую, но в настоящее время выходящую за границы человеческих возможностей.

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