An Essay On Organizational Citizenship Behavior

The Relationship Between Training And Organisational Citizenship Behaviour: The Mediating Role Of Job Satisfaction

The current global economic situation continues to challenge work establishments to be extremely prudent in the areas of budgeting, employee selection, staff complements and training. These challenges in themselves are vested in the human resource function of the organization, and can easily be compromised in favour of the need to ensure financial viability of the establishment. This important role of the human resource application within the organization propels an examination of the key constructs that will facilitate success.

In such a period of continuous change and uncertainty, a vital construct that must be utilized is training. Training is necessary in order to maintain a flexible and adaptable workforce. These rapid changes within the work environment include, but are not limited to, reduced employee quotas, increased workload, unfamiliar work assignments, and the expansion of training needs. Management practices can be impacted as a result of these constraints leading to compromised human resource function, affecting training, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of job satisfaction as a partial mediator between training and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in private and public sector organisations in Barbados. A study such as this should assist in dispelling the notion that effective training, relevant to the organization and employee needs is an added financial burden to the establishment; but rather be viewed as an investment that can benefit the organization.
Moreover, the current global economic situation challenges workplaces to be extremely selective with their budgeting thus making it easier for human resource management issues to be overlooked. The importance of the human resource to the organization propels one to examine key constructs in the organization that will allow for its success.

Bratton and Gold (2009 p.307) noted that organisations that present a holistic view accept the '... idea of learning at the individual and organisational levels as a crucial source of competitive advantage'. Indeed, Rowden and Conine (2003) recommended additional research '... to further understand this apparently powerful link between workplace learning and job satisfaction'.

Scholars have presented the view that it is imperative that employees be highly trained if they are to meet the demands of the current global environment where the only constant, is change. It is suggested that well-trained employees will be more confident and will perform their job function more efficiently. An example of this is reflected in Ahmad (2011), who concurs with this view and explains the training equation: 'training provided has allowed employees to acquire new knowledge and skills, give them self-confidence in their capability to do their job and enhances their overall performance'.

Rationale for Study
Schmidt (2004) posits the view that '... as training becomes more a part of an employee's life, the relationship of training to job satisfaction becomes more prominent'. In addition, Podsakoff et al., (2000 p.532) reports that job satisfaction is related to citizenship behaviors. However literature paucity exists relative to the relationship between training and organizational citizenship behaviours. Therefore, from a business perspective, this study will emphasise the importance of human capital to the success of the organization.

In addition, it seeks to provoke thought amongst key stakeholders and assist in the movement of training from a cost factor to a realization that training is an investment that results in benefits to the organisation.

Strategic human resource management will have a stronger 'voice' when presenting the view that training that is in alignment with the organisation's goals and objectives will result in substantial profits for the organisation and will lead to achievable competitive advantage. Furthermore, this study may encourage organisations in Barbados to understand and implement where possible, training programs that increase their competitive capabilities and realize optimal returns from their training investment.
This research paper will take the following format:
Section II- reviews literature on training and its importance to the individual and the organization; defines organizational citizenship behaviours (OCB), training and OCB relationship, the mediating role of job satisfaction and theoretical framework of the Results study. Section III- presents the methodology used for the study; Section IV- presents the Results ,Section V-Limitations Section V- Practical Implications, SectionVI Conclusion VII- Recommendations for Future Reearch.
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LITERATURE REVIEW
Training
Training is one of the human resource functions designed and applied to develop employees. It is emphasized that it is through this function that a firm's employees are taught new skills, knowledge and attitudes required to initially perform a job or task or improve upon the performance of current job or task (Nadler and Wiggs, 1986;). Ivancevich (1995, as quoted in Greenidge et al. 2012) defined training as an organized process designed to transform employees' attitudes, knowledge or skill behavior in a manner that directly contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives.

According to Mohammud et.al. (2006, p.440), it is accepted that employee skills and abilities are the 'bedrock' of the organization and are responsible for its success. This assessment augments the need for training to be viewed as key to organizational success. In this Landy (1985) description, job training is defined as 'a set of planned activities on the part of an organization to increase the job knowledge and skills or to modify the attitudes and social behavior of its members in ways consistent with the goals of the organization and the requirements of the job'.

While DeSario et. al. (1994) propose that training is differing learning practices intended to improve ''the short-term and or long-term job performance of individual employees'. In this respect, training is viewed as part of an on-going developmental process. Training has also been presented as the skills deemed necessary by management to attain an organisation's goals. Moreover, it has been suggested that the larger the gap between skills needed, and actual skills, the greater the lack of job satisfaction (Sahinidis & Bouris 2007, p. 65). Furthermore, Wen- Hwa Kao, (2008) in his search of the literature uses a definition of training as presented by Noe, (2002) where training is described as ''a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees' learning of job-related competencies'. It is noticed that training definitions within the literature are relatively similar with the overarching theme of developing skills to realize a work standard required by the organisation. An example of this are Bakare (2012) who considers training to be a '... systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by a person in order to effectively perform a given task or job'.

This view is further expanded by Atif et al. (2011, as quoted in Adeymi 2013) who defined training as '' a practical education through which knowledge and skills develop, experiences and inefficiencies are overcome and closer approximation can be achieved'. Training is also characterized in the literature as important to the organization; indeed, the view is posited that organisations ''must rely on workplace learning and continuous improvement in order to remain competitive' (London and Moore, 1999, as quoted in Salas et al; 2012). Furthermore, it is deemed important for organisations to '' adapt, compete, excel, innovate, produce' reach goals' (Salas et al, 2012). Moreover, Salas et al (2012) established that training reduces errors in the workplace; they note that organisations that train or educate their workforce can achieve sustainable success. The assertion is also made that training must be 'properly designed' in order for it to work. Simply stated, Salas et al. (2012) have noted that a 'number of empirical studies ' show that when training is designed systematically and based on the science of learning and training, it yields results'.

According to Schmidt (2010), there are still ongoing debates within the literature that pertain to theory. The debate on job training formulation was discussed by Buelens and Coetsier (1984 as quoted in Schmidt 2010). They noted that '' there was very little conceptual agreement with regard to theory formulation'; this was attributed to 'training complexity and a variety of diverse processes'. However, Salas and Canon-Bowers (2001, p.475) posited the view that ''training research is no longer atheoretical'; it includes constructs, concepts and models that are based on learning theory and systems theory among others.

Training can be formal or informal; and has been defined in the literature as 'any activity or course, either formal or informal (e.g. on-the- job) which has helped you acquire the knowledge and skills to do your job' (McLeod and King as quoted in Mousa, 2014).

Importance of Training
Training is said to be beneficial to the organization as well as the individual; in fact Glance et.al. (1997) determined that training enhances an employee's commitment to the organization. In addition, a new nationwide study found that job satisfaction and retention rates are high when a company trains its employees (Wagner, 2008). According to Sajuyigbe and Amusat (2012 as quoted in Adesola et.al 2013), training maintains employees existing performance as set by the organization. In addition, it improves employee motivation by strengthening employees' beliefs' in their abilities to perform their jobs. Furthermore, training gives employees an understanding of the organization- its norms and values.

Uma (2013 p.137) asserts that training is '' crucial for organizational development and success; ' and, an employee who is well- trained becomes more efficient and productive'. It is made conclusive within the literature that training has value for the organization and the employee. It is said to improve employee morale, thus resulting in a more confident employee. According to Ahmad (2011) the employee can benefit from training in the form of advancement in their career, improvement in pay, opportunities for promotion, job satisfaction and sense of job security.

Organisations that train their employees benefit in many ways; training leads to job satisfaction. This means that there is a lower level of job absences, less turn over, higher levels of productivity. In addition, there is greater acknowledgement of the need for safety and therefore there are fewer accidents; there is less need for supervision as there is greater attention and efficiency. The organization also benefits as the employee is now more multi-skilled and committed to their job (Ansar, 2009; Uma, 2013; Jewel, 1985 as quoted in Schmidt, 2007; Vijayabanu & Amaha, 2012).

The view posited (Grund 2001, as cited in Adesola et al., 2013) is that training improves performance, productivity, retention rates and results in higher levels of job satisfaction. While (Bartel and Lichtenberg, 1987 cited in Jones et al., 2008) are of the view that training can act as a stimulant for innovation within the workplace. Overall, training in the workplace can be viewed as vital to the success of the organisation. It is noted in the literature that 'Businesses that have made learning, education, and development a priority have seen it pay off through profitability and increased worker job satisfaction (Filipczak 1989, Leslie, Aring and Brand, 1998; Mulraney and Turner; 2001 as cited in Rowden 2002).

The resource-based view approach contends that internal resources are more important for an organization than external factors in the achievement of a firm's success and competitive advantage (David, 2011 p, 127). The resource-based model presents the view that sustainable competitive advantage is achieved when other firms cannot duplicate a particular strategy.

In fact, to attain that competitive advantage, a firm's resources must be valuable, rare, hard to imitate and not easily substitutable (David, 2011, Wright et al. Barney, 1991). Furthermore Wright et al. attributes these values to human beings as they can be no real substitution of one individual with another. Huselid et. al. (1997 as quoted in Greenidge et al; 2012) note that a firm can ' leverage its pool of human capital to achieve a competitive advantage'. In addition, Boxall (1996) is of the view that ' training has a significant role to play in developing human resources if they are to be that resource that is inimitable and key to the organisation's success. The resource-based view when applied will ensure that employees are well trained which will mean that they are likely to be satisfied with their jobs and will to assist the firm through their engagement in organizational citizenship behaviours.

Organisational Citizenship Behaviours
There are many definitions posited in the literature to explain organizational citizenship behavior. It has been continuously researched, analysed and discussed. In addition, there have been subtle changes made to its original definition over time; however according to Zhang (2011) this 'construct remains the same at its core'. Organisational citizenship behaviour is also defined as an important and positive influence in organizational success (Mohammad et al. (2011)

According to the literature, the term organisational citizenship behavior was first coined by Organ & Bateman (1983; Smith, Organ and Near, 1983, as quoted in Podsakoff et al. (2000) This concept has been guided by Barnard (1938) whose concept was based on 'willingness to cooperate'. Organ (1988 as quoted in Podsakoff et al. 2000) defined organisational citizenship behaviors as behaviours that are voluntary or optional, that cannot be imposed on the individual as they fall outside of their employment contract These behaviours are seen as positive behaviours exhibited by the individual that are beneficial to the organization.

Organ (1983, quoted in Swaminathan, 2013) also divided OCB into five categories: Altruism, Conscientiousness, Sportsmanship, Courtesy and Civic Virtue. In addition, Organ (1983) also defined them as outlined below:
Altruism- voluntary behaviors where an employee provides assistance to an individual with a problem.
Conscientiousness- dedication to the job that exceeds the formal requirements such as, long working hours, as well as volunteering to perform jobs outside their duties.
Sportsmanship- the behavior of warmly tolerating irritations that are an unavoidable part of most organizational settings.
Courtesy- helps prevent problems and facilitates constructive use of time (e.g, advance notices, reminders),
Civic Virtue- employees' participation in the organizational political life and supporting the administrative function of the organization.

OCBs are considered to be those work-related behaviours which 'go above and beyond' the routine duties prescribed by their job descriptions or measured in formal evaluations (Bateman& Organ, 1983). Since these efforts are made beyond the requirements specified in the job description, their presence cannot be reinforced (Organ, 1988) and their absence cannot be penalized (Van Dyne et al., 1995). Examples of these efforts include helping others, using time efficiently, conserving resource, sharing ideas and positively representing the organization cooperation with peers, performing extra duties without compliant, punctuality volunteering and (Turnsipseed & Rassuli,2005). Organ (1997) updated the OCB definition to include 'contributions to the maintenance and enhancement of the psychological context that supports task performance'. In Organ (2006), the definition was expanded once more, this time to emphasize its discretionary nature. OCB was now described as '' discretionary contributions that go beyond the strict description and that do not lay claim to contractual recompense from the formal reward system'.

Podsakoff et al. (2000) noted that there were approximately thirty similar constructs since 1983. In addition to those posited by Organ (1988), Van Scotter & Motowidlo (1998) presented 'interpersonal facilitation and job dedication, whilst 'helping coworkers' was added by George & Brief (1992). In addition, 'loyalty, obedience and participation' were added by Van Dyne et al. (1994). This trend continued and new labels like 'extra-role behavior' (Van Dyne, Cummings & Parks, 1995); as well as 'prosocial behavior' (Brief & Motowidlo,1986; George,1990, 1991; George & Batterhausen,1990; O'Reilly & Chatman, 1986 as quoted in LePine et al. 2002) were accepted.

Organ (1998) labelled it OCB, Brief and Motowidlo (1986) called it prosocial organizational behaviour, extra-role behaviour was the label given by Van Dyne and LePine (1998) and it was presented by Motowidlo and Van Scotter (1994) as contextual performance; it was endorsed by Organ (1995).
However, Williams and Anderson (1991) indicated that empirical and conceptual studies have '' suggested two categories' for this concept: Organisational citizenship behaviours individual ( OCBI) and OCBO Organisation citizenship behaviours. OCBI represents behaviour that will be beneficial to the individual and OCBO is representative of behaviour targeting the organization.
In a critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature, Podsakoff et al, (2000) indicates that there are 'conceptual similarities between the various types of constructs identified in the literature'. It is evident that this construct is still evolving, but what is extant within the literature is that there is a measure of consistency as it relates to its antecedents; and job satisfaction is highly rated as significantly and positively associated with organizational citizenship behavior.
The social exchange theory scrutinizes reciprocity in relation to employee- this has been attributed to Hopkins (2002, as quoted in Mohammad et al 2011). This theory is applied to organizational citizenship behaviour and Mohammad et al (2011); however it has been used to measure OCBO and OCBI.

The social exchange theory is considered applicable for this study as it examines reciprocity, the idea of 'something for something' The rules of reciprocity or 'repayment in kind '. Social exchange theory is based on the exchange principle that 'humans in social situations choose behaviours that maximize their likelihood of meeting their self-interest inn those situations'. The fundamental principle that characterizes the social exchange theory can be applied to the work environment for example the employer uses the employee to maximize potential benefits to the organization. This theory assumes that persons are rational and operate at the level of costs and benefits in social exchange.

The social exchange theory is applicable as it can address the conceptualization of the theory that training leads to organizational citizenship behaviour and this relationship is mediated by job satisfaction. The employer trains the employee (something given), the employee benefits, the employee becomes satisfied and the organization benefits. The relationship continues with the employee benefiting by receiving a promotion, for example and the organization benefits when the employee engages in organizational citizenship behaviours.

It is noted that the social exchange theory was found to significantly increase satisfaction with training (Witt and Braoch , 1993). In their study it was shown that 'exchange ideology, significantly increased satisfaction with training. The social exchange theory was also found to strengthen the effects of equal opportunities and attitudes . Emerson (1976 as quoted in Crapanzano and Mitchell, 2005 ) 'noted that theorists agree that social exchange theory involves a series of interactions that generate obligations'. Hence the social exchange theory is applicable to the overall study as it over sees the entire social exchange in the work environment.

An example social exchange theory at work ' trained employees are likely to engage in behaviours that show an increase in job satisfaction; this leads employees to engage in organizational citizenship behaviours. This is propelled by the social exchange theory where employees view the work relationship as a social exchange (Bateman and Organ, 1983, Van Dyne, Graham, and Dienesch, 1994 as cited in IIies, Fulmer, Spitzmuller and Johnson, 2009)- ' that is, those who benefit from satisfying work environment will be more likely to reciprocate by engaging in citizenship behaviours'. Furthermore, empirical and theoretical research has shown that training is positively associated with job satisfaction. In addition, there is theoretical empirical ad meta-analyses that show there is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviours.

Training and Organisational CitizenshipBehaviours
There has been consistency in the literature as it relates to the view that organizational citizenship behavior has focused on its antecedents and the attitudinal components were listed as showing the strongest relationships with OCB (Podsakoff et al, 2000). .

However, Ahmad (2011) investigated an area of study that has been significantly neglected-the association between training and organizational citizenship behaviors. It examined five training variables- availability of training, support for training, motivation to learn, training environment and perceived benefits of training and OCB. It used five components of OCB ' altruism, conscientiousness, civic virtue, sportsmanship and courtesy. Ahmad (2011) reported an alpha coefficient ranging from 0.70 to 0.93 which makes the results according to Nunnally (1978 as quoted in Ahmad 2011), reliable. The study also showed that the four variables of training are significantly and positively associated the total scores of OCB. Ahmad (2011) suggests that should organizations want to increase the OCB levels of employees they should invest more in the training of workers. The view was also posited, based on the results, that training will improve the individual components of OCB. It was shown that improved support, motivation and benefits of training as well as the training environment, will result in the employees exhibiting a higher level of altruism.

The direct relationship between training and OCB is not widely supported in the literature as it has not been widely researched. However, this study predicts that there will be a direct relationship between training and organizational citizenship behaviour and will also be related when it is mediated by job satisfaction. Given the above, the following is hypothesized:
H1: Training will be related to organizational citizenship behaviour.
Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction has been extensively studied in many disciplines and this view has been presented and elaborated on by Ravari, Mizaei & Jamalizadeh (2012). In an effort to understand the concept of job satisfaction it is necessary to examine the definitions found in the literature. Job satisfaction has been defined in various ways. A definition that has remained viable and is used in most job satisfaction research, states that it is 'a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences' Locke (1976, as quoted in Judge and Klinger (pg.394). Job satisfaction is also noted 'a positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics' Robbins and Judge (2007).
Furthermore, a survey of network professionals conducted by Lucentcare showed that '... the most important factor in job satisfaction was the opportunity to learn new skills' (Blum and Kaplan , 2000). Also, a Computerworld survey of IT professionals found that dissatisfied employees attributed their job dissatisfaction in part to their inability to get the training they wanted (Melymuka, 2000).

Researchers, (Jones, Jones, Latreille & Sloane 2008) examined the relationship between training, job satisfaction and workplace performance using the British Workplace Employee Survey (WERS). Bennett 2006 conducted a quantitative study of the relationship between training and job satisfaction and the results of this study indicated that workplace learning significantly and positively impacted job satisfaction.

Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction
The present study advances a conceptual model in which job satisfaction acts as a hypothesized partial mediation concept that has a direct path from training to organizational.
There is increasing evidence that attitudes about one's job; including job satisfaction, are critically important to the functioning of work organizations (Pratkanis & Turner, 1994; Spector 1997a). Furthermore, there are many definitions extant for the much researched construct, job satisfaction. Rowden and Conine (2003, p. 463) found that 'a large part of the worker's sense of job satisfaction can be attributed to workplace learning opportunities'. Employees who were exposed to training were more satisfied than those who did not receive training (Lowry, Simon & Kimberley, 2002).

A number of studies examining the relationship between training and job satisfaction have found that a strong and positive relationship exists between these two variables. Schmidt (2010) in a study conducted in small and medium-sized organisations found that employees attributed their level of job satisfaction to the availability of workplace learning opportunities. Schmidt concluded that '' workplace learning is now directly linked to job satisfaction'.
Additionally, in a study conducted to examine job training and job satisfaction among call center employees Schmidt (2007), the results showed a strong positive relationship between job training satisfaction and overall job satisfaction. Schmidt (2010) in a review of the literature acknowledged that the variables training and job satisfaction have been widely researched as individual constructs, or with other constructs. The results of these studies have encouraged research of these concepts together

However, Hertzberg (1959) presented a two- factor theory of Job Satisfaction which states that Job Content factors known as 'motivators", such as responsibility, recognition, the nature of work itself, are responsible for presence or absence of job satisfaction. Job Context factors or "hygiene factors" such as pay and working conditions are responsible for the presence or absence of job dissatisfaction.

Motivators include responsibility, recognition, promotion, achievement, and the intrinsic aspects of the job. The hygienes' on the other hand, consist of supervision, salary, work environment, company policies and relationship with colleagues. This theory captures the core of this study and is used in the design of the instrument. The extensive research advanced for job satisfaction emphasizes the rationality of its applicability for the measurement of workplace behaviours.

However, it is noted that the relationship between job training and job satisfaction is not widely researched ( Ellinger, Ellinger & Keller, 2003; Tansky & Cohen, 2001). A study comprising thirteen countries in the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) 1994-2001 found that job satisfaction was higher where there was access to workplace training, The study concluded that training is positively and significantly associated with job satisfaction. In addition it was found that where workers skills were mismatched in terms of educational requirements employees were less satisfied.

In a study of the relationship between workplace training satisfaction and overall job satisfaction (Schmidt 2004), it was found that a strong positive relationship existed between these variables. This Schmidt study used a sample of five hundred and fifty two customer and technical service employees in nine major organisations in the United States of America and Canada and it concluded that this study concurred with previous studies conducted on professional occupations (Ellinger, Ellinger & Keller, 2003; Tansky & Cohen, 2001). The results showed that there was a strong positive relationship between satisfaction with workplace training and job satisfaction Based on the findings the author recommends that satisfaction with job training should be considered as an aspect of overall job satisfaction. Furthermore, it was suggested that an environmental scan should be conducted as well as careful planning to realize the overall goals of the organization.

Wen-Hwa Kao (2008) examined training, satisfaction with Internship Programs and Confidence about Future Careers among Hospitality students at Universities in Taiwan. This study explored the level of satisfaction experienced by students involved with internship programs and sought to establish the relationship between job satisfaction with training as well as confidence about their future careers.

Jones, Jones, Latreille and Sloane 2008 examined the relationship between training, job satisfaction and workplace performance using the British Workplace Employee Survey (WERS). Bennett (2006), in a quantitative study of the relationship between training and job satisfaction and the results of this study indicated that workplace learning significantly and positively impacted job satisfaction. The researcher utlised professionals employed in Information Technology at Educational Institutions.

In a quantitative study conducted by Cheng, Wu, Lai & Sun 2004, Kuo; 2004, questionnaire items were adapted from previously conducted studies assessing job satisfaction and student attitudes toward internship. This study utilized a wide sampling size that was convenient and found training to be a''direct antecedent of job satisfaction''

It has been shown that training has an influence on job satisfaction, and with the increasing importance placed on continuous learning and education throughout one's career, its importance will increase (Shmidt 2004). In addition Rowden 2002 in a study titled 'The Relationship between Workplace Learning and Job Satisfaction U.S. Small to Midsize Business' establishes strong links between workplace learning and job satisfaction. The author acknowledges that these findings contradict beliefs about the progress of human resource development in small to midsize businesses.

A conceptual model is offered for this study; job satisfaction performs a mediating role between training and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is defined within the study as A theoretical framework for this study utilizes theories from human resource management, organizational behaviour and psychological viewpoint. In fact, the theories used for the study are the Resource 'Based View

Job satisfaction has been variously defined and according to Herzberg (1959), it is one of the central variables associated with work and organizational psychology. It has been identified as the most intensely studied variable in organizational research (Rainey, 1991). In addition Vroom (1967), has defined job satisfaction as 'an individual's attitude about work roles and their relationship to worker motivation.' The job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction theory is the basis of Herzberg's job satisfaction study (Hertzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959). Herzberg's (1959) concept of job satisfaction distinguished two separate groups of factors influencing individual job satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

The first group, called 'motivators', leads to job satisfaction while the second group, 'hygienes', leads to job dissatisfaction (Herzberg, 1969; Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959). Motivator factors of job satisfaction include achievement, recognition, the work itself, and the intrinsic interest of the job (Herzberg, 1969). Hygiene factors of the job include pay, job security, working conditions, policy and administration, and relationships with peers and supervisors (Herzberg, 1969; Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959). Herzberg (1969) referred to motivators as 'intrinsic factors' and hygienes as 'extrinsic factors'.

Kalleberg (1977) postulated that work rewards reflect the intrinsic and extrinsic benefits that workers receive from their jobs. Two important groups of work rewards that have been identified include task, and organizational rewards. Task rewards refer to those intrinsic rewards directly associated with doing the job (Katz & Van Maanan, 1977; Mottaz, 1988). They include such factors as interesting and challenging work, self-direction, and responsibility, variety and opportunities to use one's skills and abilities. Organizational rewards, on the other hand, refer to the extrinsic rewards provided by the organization for the purpose of facilitating or motivating task performance and maintaining membership (Katz & Van Maanan, 1977; Mottaz, 1988). They represent tangible rewards that are visible to others and include such factors like pay, promotions, fringe benefits, security, and comfortable working conditions.

It is generally assumed that individuals value economic (extrinsic) as well as intrinsic job reward. Some workers may strongly emphasize both types of rewards, some may place little value on either, and others may emphasize one type and deemphasize the other. Nevertheless, both forms of rewards contribute to job satisfaction (O'Reilly & Caldwell, 1980). Therefore, the greater the perceived congruence between work rewards and work values, the higher the job satisfaction.
Researchers have studied job satisfaction from different perspectives using theoretical models. Among the theoretical models is the equity theory which was first proposed by Adams (1965). According to this theory the worker brings experience, education, qualifications, energy, and effort and these are labelled 'inputs'. Pay, fringe benefits, recognition, interesting and challenging work, each in equivalent proportions are the 'outcomes'. Taken together, it is hypothesized that:
HII: training will be related to job satisfaction.
HIII: job satisfaction will be related to OCB
HIV: Job satisfaction will partially mediate the relationship between training and organizational citizenship behaviours.
Organizational learning acts as an antecedent and predicts job satisfaction, and job satisfaction in turn predicts work performance (consequence). This consequence is the catalyst for OCB. This finding is in line with the results from the study conducted by Lok and Crawford (2001) which indicates that job satisfaction plays a partial role as mediator between independent and dependent variables. They reported that a significant proportion of the effects of the antecedents on commitment operated directly on commitment rather than indirectly via their effect on job satisfaction. Chiu and Francisco (2003) reported that job satisfaction mediates the relationship between dispositional traits and turnover intention. The result confirms the role of job satisfaction as a mediating variable in this study. The finding from the study conducted by Carmeli and Freund (2004) indicated that job satisfaction had a mediating role in the relationship between commitment and job performance. Yousef (2002) reported in his study that job satisfaction mediated the influences of role conflict and role ambiguity on various facets of organizational commitment, except continuance commitment and high personal sacrifice. The study conducted by Egan et al. (2004) also revealed that organizational learning activities had an indirect effect on employees' turnover intention and this effect was mediated by job satisfaction. Similar results were also been reported on the role of job satisfaction as mediator by Iverson and Roy (1994), Michaels (1994), and Politis (2005)

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Study Design
This study utilized a quantitative methodology; this approach allows for generalizations and inferences to be made about some characteristic, attitude from a sample to a population (Babbie 1990, as cited in Creswell, 2009; pg.146). The survey design is used extensively in research and this study adapts this design as it allows for generalization from a sample to a population, it is easily completed as respondents answer mostly closed ended questions and it is easier to administer (Creswell, 2009; pg.146). The independent variable of this study is training. The dependent variables are organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction in the mediating role.

Participants
The study utilized 200 employees from the private and public sectors of Barbados. A non- probability convenience sampling method was applied to this cross-sectional study. A structured self-report questionnaire was utilized for this study.
Measurements
The questionnaire consisted of four sections ' training, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviour and demographics.
Section A examined Training and used a Likert's type five factor scale from strongly disagree rated at a value of 1 to strongly agree rated at a value of 5. This questionnaire was adapted from the Technical Manual supplied by Schmidt (2007)
Section B - Job Satisfaction- The short form Minnesota Satisfaction questionnaire (MSQ) by Weiss, Dawis, England & Lofquist (1967) was used to measure job satisfaction. The MSQ is a 20-item scale for assessing Overall Job Satisfaction. Participants responded to each item on a 5-point Likert type scale ranging from 1= very dissatisfied to 5 very satisfied. Cook, Hepworth, Wall and Warr (1981) reported internal reliabilities for the MSQ short form overall job satisfaction scale for a number of samples ranging from .87 to .92. High scores represent high levels of overall job satisfaction. The coefficient alpha for overall job satisfaction was .86 in the current study.
Organisation Citizenship Behaviour
Section C: this section was taken from a study undertaken by Williams and Anderson (1991) which examined organisational citizenship behaviours that target the individual (OCBI) as well as organizational citizenship behaviours that focus on and benefit the organization (OCBO). The items of the questionnaire were selected from previous works (Bateman and Organ, 1983; Graham, 1986; O'Reilley and Chatman, 1986; Organ, 1988; Smith Organ and Near 1983).

The questionnaire consisted of two subscales- items were specifically designed for the benefit of the individual (OCBI) and indirectly benefited the organisation (OCBI). For example 'Helps others who have been absent', the reliability level was ??=.81. In addition items on OCB that benefited and focused primarily on the organisation (OCBO) were also included. For example 'adheres to informal rules devised to maintain order'- reliability level was ??=.80.

This study used a 5-point Likert type scale ranging from 1= Never to 5= Always to assess the frequency with which employees engage in each behaviour. Section D sought demographic information on respondents; age, gender, educational level attained, length of time employed with the organization and job status- whether permanent or temporary.

The training aspect of the questionnaire sought information from employees on their views in relation to employer expectation and their own expectations. It was designed to determine how employees viewed job training and development in the organization as well as their personal perspective on the need for training as an individual.

Items pertaining to job satisfaction were used as measure of employees' satisfaction with the job. The constructs included in this section examined satisfaction with supervisors, co-workers, opportunities and rewards and the nature of the job. These variables were designed to validate training and job satisfaction aspects of the instrument.

Data Collection Procedures
Data for the present study were collected from a wide and varied cross- section of workers employed in the private and public sectors of Barbados. Two hundred self- reported questionnaires were distributed and collected over a five-day period by the researcher and an assistant. The response rate was 100%, this response rate is very high and therefore warrants extra attention. This response can be attributed to a number of factors inclusive of the following: the questionnaire was short, simple and easy to administer. It took approximately five minutes to complete.

The cover letter was self- explanatory, however the researcher explained the purpose of the study and the procedure that should be followed. In addition, participants were informed that participation in the study was voluntary and they could decline participation or withdraw from the research at any point without being penalized. Participants were assured that the data the information provided would be completely
anonymous and be held in the strictest confidence.

This high response rate brought with it a high measure of missing data. A number of questions were left unanswered and may be assigned to reasons such as refusal to answer, question item not clear, and therefore not fully understood. Further investigation of the missing data revealed that there were trends within this process- the sex of the individual appeared to be a factor as well as the way the question was structured, in addition job positions and educational levels were also key factors.

Females constituted the higher percentage of respondents with missing data. The lack of response was noted in the demographic profiles and was especially associated with the open-ended or qualitative type questions. These questions sought information on the job position, length of time in the organization and the educational levels attained.

To the question labelled 'sex' 78 indicated 'male' and 118 'female'; four respondents did not respond to this question. Missing data seem concentrated around the qualitative type questions. The questions sought responses on job position, length of time in the organization and educational level.

Missing data for job position were'.; '. Females and ' males. The lack of response to this question could be seen as the respondent thinking a response to this question may reveal their identity; especially in organisations with specialized functions that are specific to the organization as well as situations where the respondent has been in a lower level job for an extraordinarily long period.
Length of time in the organization was shown to have a number of respondents that did not answer this question. There were' females and ' males. Length of time in the organization can be connected to the age of the individual and where the question of age was not answered truthfully, may have impacted the answer to this question. Furthermore, where job position has been answered, the respondent may not want to answer length of time in the organization as it may show that they are in a lower income job.

Educational level for this study was not categorized and this lent to a significant number of unanswered responses for this item. 33 respondents did not respond to this question. The reasons may vary, but possibilities for lack of response may include: they did not think it was relevant, qualifications and job position may not match and respondents may have found it challenging to label their educational level as this variable did not list options.
In addition, questions in the job satisfaction and `organizational citizenship were also left unanswered; reasons given included the items were not clear and definition of organizational citizenship behavior may have been necessary to simplify the question.

Variables for the study were training, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviours. Variables were treated in preparation for correlation and regression testing. Training was totaled to receive a new variable to be used in the analysis. This new variable which represents overall training as traint. Job satisfaction is represented as JBSAT and organizational citizenship behavior as OVOCB; variables used to test for correlation and regression.
The decision was taken to use Pearson correlation as all the variables needed to for such a test was in place. According to Creswell (2009 p.153) the variable was seeking a relation, there was one independent and one dependent variable and these were continuous. In addition, regression analysis needed two or more independent continuous variables that are continuous to conducted regression tests. .
Data collected from the participants were entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows (SPSS) 11.0 for analysis and interpretation. Firstly, descriptive statistics which consist of measures of central frequency, were used to present the means and standard deviations.
Statistical tests were conducted to determine whether the hypotheses could be accepted. The inferential tests conducted included correlations, and regression. Correlations were conducted on the variables

Descriptives
A summary of the profile of the respondents is presented below in the form of descriptive statistics. Demographic profiles were collected on the respondents and a summary of their characteristics is outlined below.

The results showed that 98 % of all respondents indicated their sex while 2% did not respond. Male respondents totaled 38 or (39%) and females represented 118 or (59%).

Table 1: The number of male and female respondents

Age was represented using a number of categories; one person did not respond. The majority of employees were in the age category 35-50 years with a total of 95 employees or 47.5%. The age grouping 18-34 followed; there were 63 respondents who represented 31. 5%.
Table 2: Age categories

Job position was also a part of the descriptive and it was shown that respondents were mainly located in Administration 75 persons or 37.5%; Technical 26 persons or 13.0% and management 23 persons or 11.5%. Missing values were 33 or 16.5%.
Table 3: Job Positions

The educational level of respondents :- Primary-2 persons representing 1; Secondary 59 or 29.5% and 112 respondents or 56% indicated that they had completed tertiary education; missing data in this set numbered 4.
Table 4: Educational Level Attained

Employees in this study were mostly full-time employees 184 0r 92.0% ; while 12 employees or 6% were noted as part- time.
Table 5: Employment Status

The length of time employed was also a part of the demographic profile; respondents who were employed for 0-10 years totaled 82 or 41.0%; over 10- 20 years totaled 71 or 35.5% and over 20- 30 years 31 persons or 15.5 %.
Table 6: Length of time in the organisation

Correlations
A Pearson correlation was used to test whether there a significant relationship existed between training and organizational citizenship. The research showed that there was a positive and strong relationship between training and organizational citizenship behaviour (r=.708, n-.198, p<.001).

Table 7: Training and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour

A Pearson correlation was conducted to determine whether there was a significant relationship between training and job satisfaction. The results revealed that there was a strong and positive relationship between training and job satisfaction (r = .693, n =198, p<.001). Therefore, as an employee receives more training, the more satisfied that employee is with their job.

Table 8: Training and Job Satisfaction

A Pearson correlation was conducted to determine whether there was a significant relationship between job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviours. The results revealed that there was a strong and positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviours (r = .815, n =156, p<.001). Therefore, as an employee receives more training, the more satisfied that employee is with their job.
Table 9: Job Satisfaction and Organisational Citizenship Behaviours

Regression Analysis
Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine whether training would predict organizational citizenship behaviours. The model explained that 50.1 % of the variance in training (R-square =.501). the overall model was found to be statistically significant F (1,153)=153.42, p=<.001. This was an indication that there was a positive and strong relationship between training and OCB. This result explains that the more training employees participate in the more likely they are to engage in organizational citizenship behavior. Training (predictor) was statistically significant (Beta=.708, p=.001).

Table : Regression Analysis ' examines whether training is related to OCB


Regression analysis was conducted to examine whether training and job satisfaction are related. The model explained that 48.0% of the variance in training (R-square =.480) and was statistically significant F (1,159)=146.77, p<0.001. An evaluation of the individual predictor-training, showed that it was statistically significant (beta=.693, p = <.001). These results show that a positive and strong relationship exists between training and job satisfaction. This can be interpreted to mean that as training increases , job satisfaction levels increase.

Regression Analysis with Training and Job satisfaction

Simple regression was conducted to determine whether job satisfaction is a predictor of organizational citizenship behavior. The model showed that 66.3 % of the variance in job satisfaction (R-square =.663). The overall model was statistically significant (F=1,142)= 279.95,p<.001. The predictor variable job satisfaction was found to be statistically significant. Job satisfaction (beta=.815, p<.001). This result showed that there was a positive and strong relationship between job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. This is also an indicator that the more satisfied employees are in relation to their job, the more likely they are to exhibit OCB.

Regression with Job satisfaction on OCB





Multiple Regressions
Multiple regression was used to test the mediating role of job satisfaction. The results showed that the combination of variables (training and job satisfaction) explained 69.2% of variance in organizational citizenship behaviour (R-square =.692). the overall model was statistically significant F (2,142) = 157.339, p < .001. The two predictors were found to be statistically significant; job satisfaction beta= (.647, p< .001) and training (beta = .240, p < .001). job satisfaction was positively related to organizational citizenship behaviours, signifying that as employees become more satisfied the more likely they are to participate in organizational citizenship behaviours. As employees become more highly trained the more likely they will be to exhibit organizational citizenship behaviours.

DISCUSSION
The study sought to discover whether job satisfaction mediates the relationship between training and organizational citizenship behaviours. As expected, the results showed that job satisfaction mediates the relationship between training and organizational citizenship behaviours. The partial mediation is interpreted to mean that job satisfaction can account for a significant level of variance in the relationship.

Firstly, it was hypothesized that training will mediate the relationship between training and organizational citizenship behaviours. However, this study can be said to confirm that relationship as the results of the present study indicate that there is a positive and strong relationship between these two variables. This finding has implications for future research and it should pique the interest of researchers to fully explore this relationship.

It was hypothesized that training will predict job satisfaction and this view was based on previous research (Adesola et al) where the relationship between these variables produced an r value of 0.700. This study confirms what other theoretical and empirical studies have found; inclusive of (Stephen and Bowley (2007), Bakare (2012) and Gazioglu and Tansel (2002) as quoted in Adesola 2013). Training and job satisfaction is noted in this study to have a positive and strong relationship. This can be a sign for employers to understand the role of training to the organization; training is an antecedent of positive results in the organization that lead to its success.

The relationship between job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviours was also examined. The results revealed that there was a positive, strong relationship between the variables. These findings are consistent with previous research. The results should be indicative of the importance of assumptions made in the social exchange theory. This theory looks at reciprocity-'something for something and fits well within this study as training can be viewed as the employer giving something to receive something in return.

Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine whether the hypothesis job satisfaction will partially mediate the relationship between training and organizational citizenship behaviours. The findings provide strong support for this overall mediation model and the each individual path in the study was supported.
In addition there were other points worthy of notice in relation to the study and they are inclusive of the number of respondents who indicated that they had attained tertiary education; more than 50%. This can be attributed to the fact that education level in this study was an open-ended item.

LIMITATIONS
There are limitations within this study, the use of a convenience sample and a small sample size does not allow for a true representation of the population although the sample size shows that there are significantly strong trends that would imply that this is a sample of what obtains overall throughout the organisation.
This study may have limitations as the organization may want to determine the extent of information it allows for the study. The employees on the other hand, may be hesitant in their disclosure of feelings on matters pertaining to work attitudes. The study used a convenience sample and therefore a causal test of relationships cannot be supported even though this type method may yield unrepresentative samples but it is cheap and easy to carry out. The time allocated to a study such as this may be inadequate and a longitudinal study may be more relevant.
Another limitation of the study relate to the subjective nature of the output as responses could be dependent on a particular moment in time and may not be easily repeated.
The study was limiting from a methodological point of view; that is, the study utilized a convenient sampling method and generalizability may be limited as the study did not focus on a particular industry, organization or geographical area, thus making it challenging for the study to be easily replicated. In addition it used a self-report measure which may have resulted in subjective information being used.

PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS

Firstly, the study results show that these three variables are viable in the Barbadian environment, where training is not necessarily considered the most important by companies. However, the study can highlight the interest employees have in their well- being within the organization.
This study has implications for future research; it is an indicator that training is imperative if organisations are to achieve success. This is especially so in the current volatile environment where changes occur constantly. It shows how an organization that embraces the resource based view can recognize that an employee who has been trained will be of benefit to the organization as training will be linked to the organisations goals.
In this study, job satisfaction partially mediates the relationship between training and organizational citizenship behaviours. These results show the importance of job satisfaction to the organization; it is a consequence of training but and antecedent of organizational citizenship behaviours. In other words, job satisfaction can be seen as 'sitting between training and organizational success. The social exchange theory will show reciprocity at work with the organization benefitting- training given by the organization, received by the employee and returned to the organization in the form of job satisfaction.

In addition, organizational citizenship behaviours are seen as related to training and job satisfaction and should be seen as very important to the organization. Organisational citizenship behavior is needed in the current economic environment; where layoffs and downsizing are prominent, this study shows that an investment in the employee can contribute to the success of the organization. This construct can be examined further to determine the impact of culture on this outcome. The study can also be used to examine and improve job performance and commitment to the organization.
In summary, an organization that views its employees as important to the success of the organization will be proactive in the current environment of business and will train their employees to meet future needs.

CONCLUSION
In summary, this study confirms the hypothesis that job satisfaction mediates the relationship between training and organizational citizenship behaviours. It contributes to the literature generally, but specifically within the Barbadian context. The results of tests conducted showed that training and job satisfaction are positively and strongly associated; job satisfaction is associated with organizational citizenship behaviour.

The study should pique the interest of researchers and key stake holders as it presents what could be the answer to sustainable competitive advantage. The employer invests in training and the benefits to the organization are realized in the form of job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviours.

Finally the purpose of thisstudy has been realized as it succinctly shows that training is an investment to the organization and it brings proof that the costs of training to the organization is an exchange for the many benefits it accrues.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

Future research in this area of study should be more structured. It should utilize a longitudinal approach and should use a sampling style that allows for generalizing to a population.
In addition, the study should assess the levels of training conducted by the organization as well as the level of self-development the individual accesses. The climate and culture of the organization should be included as they may influence the data received from the organization.
Given the fact that this study was limited in its scope with Barbados as the population, it should be replicated within the Caribbean as it could be used to measure the level of training extant within organisations within the Caribbean. The analysis from that study would be rich and an understanding of organisations in the Caribbean and how the y value or view their employees would be had.
The study can be an educational tool that guides organisations to change their view of seeing training as a cost to seeing training as an investment.

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Adesola, M. A. O. K. O. a. A. M. A., 2013. Empirical Study of the Relationship between Staff Training and Job Satisfaction among Nigerian Bank Employees. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 2(6), pp. 108-115.
Ahmad, K. Z., 2011. The Association between Training and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in the Digital World. IBIMA Publishing , 2011(448699), pp. 1-11.
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Arif, A. C. A., 2012. How Job Satisfaction in Influencing the Organizational Citizenship Behavior(OCB): A Study on Employees Working in Banking Sector of Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(8), pp. 74-87.
Arif, A. C. A., 2012. How Job Satisfaction is Influencing Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB): A Study on Employees Working in the Banking Sector of Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business , 4(8), pp. 74-88.
Barnes, C. M. G. S. a. S. B. A., 2013. Sleep and Organizational Citizenship behavior: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology , 18(1), pp. 16-26.
Buitendach, J. H. R., 2009. The Validation of the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire in Selected Organisations in South Africa. Journal of Human Resource Management SA, 7(1), pp. 1-8.
Costen, W. M. S. J., 2011. The Imapct of Training and Development on Employee Job Satisfaction, Loyalty, and Intent to Stay in the Lodging INdustry. Journal of Human Resource in Hospitality & Tourism, 2(10), pp. 273-284.
Creswell, J. W., 2009. Research Design, Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 3rd ed. London: Sage Publications Ltd..
cummins, k., 2014. EI. dion, pp. 24-28.
FarhanMehboobi Bhutto, N. A., 2012. Job Satisfaction as aPredictor of Organizational Citizenship Behavior. International Conference of Business, Economics, Management and Behavioral Sciences (ICBEMS2012.
Gazioglu, S. T., 2006. Job satisfaction in Britainn: Individual and job related factors. Applied Economics, Volume 38, pp. 1163-1171.
Gazioglu, S. T. A., 2006. Job Satisfaction in Britain: individual and Job -related factos. Applied Economics, 38(10), pp. 1163-1171.
Greenidge, D. A. P. P. B. a. G. S., 2012. A comparative study of recruitment and training practices between small and large business in emerging market economy The case of Barbados. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 19(1), pp. 164-182.
Greenidge, D. A. P. P. B. a. G. S., 2012. A Comparative Study of recruitment and training practices between small and large Businesses in an emerging market economy. The case of Barbados. Journal of small Business and Enterprise Development , 9(1), pp. 164-182.
Greenidge, D. D. D. A. P., 2014. The Relationship Between Ability-Based Emotional Intelligence and Contextual Performance and Counterproductive Work Behaviprs: A Test of the Mediating Effects of Job Satisfaction. [Online]
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Ilies, R. S. M. F. I. S. a. J. M. D., 2009. Personality and Citizenship Behavior: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction. Journalof App;ied Psychology, 94(4), pp. 945-959.
Intaraprasong, B. D. W. K. P. S. T., 2012. Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Personnel at the University Hospital in Thailand. J Med Associates Thai, 95(6), pp. 5102-5108.
Jahangi, N. A. M. M. a. H. M., 2004. Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature and Antecedents. BRAC University Journal, 1(2), pp. 75-85.
Jones, M. J. R. J. L. P. L. a. S. P. J., 2008. Training, Job Satisfaction and Workplace Performance in Britain: Evidence from WERS 2004. Swansea: WELMERC.
kate, n.d.
Khan, R. C. A. a. K. M., 2011. Impact of Training and Development on Organizational Performance. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 11(7), pp. 62-68.
Latif, K. F., 2012. An integrated model of training effectiveness and satisfaction with employee development interventions. Industrial and Commercial Traaining, 44(4), pp. 211-222.
Latif, K. F. J. a. S. N., n.d. Association of Training Satisfaction with Employee Development aspect of Job Satisfaction. Journal of managerial Sciences, VII(I), pp. 160-178.
LePine, J. A. E. J. D., 2002. The Nature and Dimensionality of Organisational Citizenship Behavior: A Critical Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), pp. 52-65.
Mayfield, C. T. T. D., 2010. A Prosocial Self-Concept Approach to Understanding Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(7), pp. 741-763.
Mohammad, J. H. F. Q. a. A. M., 2011. Job Satisfaction and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour: An Empirical Study at Higher Learning Institutions. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 16(2), pp. 149-165.
Mohammad, J. H. F. Q. A. M. A., 2011. Job Satisfaction and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour: An Empirical Study at Higher Learning Institutions. Asian Academy of Management Journal , 10(2), pp. 149-165.
Moorman, R. H. B. G. L. a. N. B. P., 1998. Does Perceived Organizational Support Mediate the Relationship between Procedural Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior?. Academy of Management Journal , 41(3), pp. 351-357.
Murphy, G. A. J. a. K. N., 2002. Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior - A study of Australia human-service professionals.. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17(4), pp. 287-296.
Murphy, G. A. J. a. K. N., 2002. Job Satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior A study of Australian human- service professionals. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17(4), pp. 287-297.
Organ, D. W., 1997. Organizational Citizenship Behavior: It's Construct Clean-Up Time. Human Performance, 10(2), pp. 85-97.
Organ, D. W. R. K., 1995. A Meta-Analytic Review of Attitudinal and Dispositional Predictors of Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Personnel Psychology, Issue 48, pp. 775-802.
Podsakoff, P. M. M. S. B. P. J. B. a. B. D. G., 2000. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Critical Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literatureand Suggestions for Future Research. Journal of Management, 26(3), pp. 513-563.
Rani, K. G. D., 2014. A Study on Training and Development in Public Sector anks,. International Journal of Management and Social Sciences Research (IJMSER), 3(1), pp. 33-37.
Rani, K. G. D., 2014. A Study on Training and Development in Public Sector Banks. International Journal of Management and Social Sciences Research (IJSSR), 3(1), pp. 33-37.
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