Ohio State University
School of Music
Music and Emotion - General
Adachi, Mayumi & Trehub, Sandra E. (1998). Children's expression of emotion in song. Psychology of Music, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 133-153.
Behrens, Gene Ann & Green, Samuel B. (1993). The ability to identify emotional content of solo improvisations performed vocally and on three different instruments. Psychology of Music, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 20-33.
Bever, Thomas (1988). A cognitive theory of emotion and aesthetics in music. Psychomusicology, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 165-75.
Bouhuys, Antoinette L., Bloem, Gerda & Groothuis, Ton (1995). Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 215-226.
Clynes, M. (1989). Sentics: The Touch of Emotion. Prism Printing.
Cooke, D. (1959). The Language of Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Crowder, R. G. (1986). "Perception of the major/minor distinction II: Experimental investigations." Psychomusicology, Vol. 5, pp. 3-24.
Dipert, Randall (1983). Meyer's Emotion and meaning in music: a sympathetic critique of its central claims. In theory only, Vol. 6, No. 8, pp. 3-17.
Feld, S. (1982). Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics, and Song in Kaluli Expression. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Gabrielsson, Alf (1989). Intense emotional experiences of music. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition. Kyoto, Japan: The Japanese Society for Music Perception and Cognition; pp. 371-376.
Gabrielsson, Alf & Lindstrom, Erik (1995). Emotional expression in synthesizer and sentograph performance. Psychomusicology, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, pp. 94-116.
Gabrielsson, Alf & Lindstrom, Siv (1993). On strong experiences of music. Musikpsychologie: Jahrbuch der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Musikpsychologie Vol. 10, pp. 118-139.
Gaver, William W. & Mandler, George (1987). Play it again, Sam: On liking music. Cognition and Emotion, Vol. 3, pp. 259-282.
Goldstein, Avram (1980). Thrills in response to music and other stimuli. Physiological Psychology, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp.126-129.
Hatten, Richard S. (1994). Semiotic and gestural bases for musical affective understanding. Paper presented at the 17th conference of the Society for Music Theory, Tallahassee, Florida, 1994 Nov. 3.
Heinlein, C. P. (1928). The affective characters of the major and minor modes in music. Journal of Comparative Psychology, Vol. 8, pp. 101-142.
Hevner, K. (1936). Experimental studies of the elements of expression in music. American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 48, pp. 246-268.
Huron, D. (1993). A derivation of the rules of voice-leading from perceptual principles. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Vol. 93, No. 4, p. S2362.
Huron, D. (1994). Interval-class content in equally-tempered pitch-class sets: Common scales exhibit optimum tonal consonance. Music Perception, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 289-305.
Kamenetsky, Stuart B., Hill, David S. & Trehub, Sandra E. (1997). Effect of tempo and dynamics on the perception of emotion in music. Psychology of Music, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 149-160.
Kivy, Peter (1994). How music moves. In: Music Alone; Philosophical Reflections on the Purely Musical Experience. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, Chapter 8, pp. 146-172.
Kivy, Peter (1993). Auditors' emotions: Contention, concession and compromise. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 1-12.
Kratus, John (1993). A developmental study of children's interpretation of emotion in music. Psychology of Music, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 3-19.
Krumhansl, Carol L. (1979). "The psychological representation of musical pitch in a tonal context. Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 11, pp. 346-374.
Krumhansl, Carol L. (1983). "Perceptual structures for tonal music." Music Perception, Vol. 1, pp. 28-62.
Krumhansl, Carol L. & Castellano, M.A. (1983). "Dynamic processes in music perception." Memory Cognition, Vol. 11, pp. 325-334.
Lerdahl, Fred & Jackendoff, Ray (1983). A Generative Theory of Tonal Music. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Mazo, Margarita (1994). Lament made visible: A study of paramusical elements in Russian Lament. In Bell Yung and Joseph Lam (eds.) Themes and Variations.. Harvard College & Chinese University of Honk Kong, 1994; pp.164-211.
Meyer, Leonard B. (1956). Emotion and Meaning in Music. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Meyer, R.K., Palmer, C., & Mazo, M. (1998). Affective and coherence responses to Russian laments. Music Perception, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 135-150.
Shove, Patrick, & Bruno H. Repp, B.H. (1995). Musical motion and performance: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. In: John Rink, ed. The Practice of Performance: Studies in Musical Interpretation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 55-83.
Rotter, Gunther (1986). Psychologische Aspekte analytischen Horens. Musikpadagogische Forschung, Vol. 7, pp. 267-83.
Sacks, Oliver (1993/94). An anthropologist on Mars. New Yorker, 1993 Dec. 27/1994 Jan. 3; pp. 106-125.
Schellenberg, Glenn, Krysciak, Ania & Campbell, Jane. (2000). Perceiving emotion in melody: Interactive effects of pitch and rhythm. Music perception, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 155-171.
Scherer, Klaus R. (1991). Emotion expression in speech and music. In: Music, language, speech and brain. London: Macmillan, pp. 146-156.
Schmidt-Atzert, Lothar (1982). Emotionspsychologie und Musik. Musikpadagogische Forschung, Germany III, 26-43.
Schubert, Emery (1996). Enjoyment of negative emotions in music: An associative network explanation. Psychology of Music, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 18-28.
Shove, Patrick & Repp, Bruno H. (1995). Musical motion and performance: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. In: ??? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 55-83.
Sloboda, John (1991). Music structure and emotional response: Some empirical findings. Psychology of Music, Vol. 19, No. 2 pp. 110-120.
Sloboda, John (1992). Empirical studies of emotional response to music. In: M.R. Jones & S. Holleran (Eds.) Cognitive Bases of Musical Communication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp.33-46.
Sloboda, John A. Lehmann, Andreas C. Parncutt, Richard (1997). Perceiving intended emotion in concert-standard performances of Chopin's prelude no. 4 in E minor. In: Alf Gabrielsson (Ed.), Proceedings of the Third Triennial ESCOM Conference. Uppsala, Sweden: European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music, pp. 629-634.
Smith, Jeff. (1999). Movie music as moving music: Emotion, cognition, and the film score. In: C. Plantinga & G.M. Smith (Eds.) Passionate Views: Film, Cognition, and Emotion. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; pp.146-167.
Speck, Stanley (1988). "Arousal theory" reconsidered. British Journal of Aesthetics, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 40-47.
Tagg, P. (1979). KOJAK -- 50 Seconds of Television Music; Towards the Analysis of Affect in Popular Music. G\(:oteborg, Sweden: Studies from the Department of Musicology, No. 2, 1979.
Taylor, Peter J. (1994). Mendelssohn's Scottish Symphony and the music of German memory. Paper presented at the 60th conference of the American Musicological Society, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1994 October 28.
Terezis, Helene C. (1994). Variables influencing cognitive and affective reactions to a musical mood-induction procedure. PhD Dissertation, University of Cincinnati.
Thompson, William F. & Robitaille, Brent (1992). Can composers express emotions through music? Empirical Studies of the Arts, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 79-89.
Unyk, A.M., Trehub, S.E., Trainor, L.J., and Schellenberg, E.G. (1992). Lullabies and simplicity: A cross-cultural perspective. Psychology of Music, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 15-28.
Wedin, L. (1972). A multidimensional study of perceptual-emotional qualities in music. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 13, pp. 1-17.
Music and Emotion - Philosophical
Budd, Malcolm (1992). Music and the Emotions: The Philosophical Theories. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1992.
Davies, Stephen (1997). Why listen to sad music if it makes one feel sad? In: Jenefer Robinson (ed.) Music and Meaning. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, pp. 242-253.
Levinson, J. (1997). Music and negative emotion. In: Jenefer Robinson (ed.) Music and Meaning. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, pp. 215-241.
Radford, Colin (1989). Emotions and music: A reply to the cognitivists. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 69-76.
Robinson, Jenefer (1994). The expression and arousal of emotion in music. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 13-22.
Sparshott, Francis (1994). Music and feeling. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 23-35.
Music and Emotion - Cross-cultural
Balkwill, Laura-Lee & Thompson, William F. (1999). A cross-cultural investigation of the perception of emotion in music: Psychophysical and cultural cues. Music perception, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 43-64.
Hidemi, Ishida (1987). An introduction to musical thought in ancient China: Sound, order, emotion. Translated by Steven Nelson. Contemporary Music Review, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 75-84.
Hoshino, Etsuko (1996). The feeling of musical mode and its emotional character in a melody. Psychology of Music, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 29-46.
Ottenheimer, Harriet (1979). Catharsis, communication, and evocation: alternative views of the sociopsychological functions of blues singing. Ethnomusicology, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 75-86.
Saxena, Sushil Kumar (1989). The rasa theory: An essay in understanding. Sangeet natak: Journal of Indian Music, Dance, Theatre, No. 91, pp. 3-30.
Shusterman, Richard (1999). Moving truth: Affect and Authenticity in Country Musicals. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 57, No. 2, pp. 221-233.
Tolbert, Elizabeth D. (1990). Women cry with words: Symbolization of affect in the Karelian lament. Yearbook for Traditional Music, Vol. 22, pp. 80-105.
Vaughn, Kathryn (1990). Exploring emotion in sub-structural aspects of Karelian lament: Application of time series analysis to digitized melody. Yearbook for Traditional Music, Vol. 22, pp. 106-122.
Yano, Christine R. (1995). Shaping tears of a nation: An ethnography of emotion in Japanese popular song. PhD dissertation, University of Hawaii, 657pp.
Emotion and Sound
Brown, K. A. & Buchwald, J. S. (1973). Acoustic responses and plasticity of limbic units in cats. Experimental Neurology, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 608-631.
Dimberg, Ulf. (1987). Facial reactions and autonomic activity to auditory stimuli with high and low intensity. Psychophysiology, Vol. 24, p. 586.
Dimberg, Ulf. (1989). Perceived unpleasantness and facial reactions to auditory stimuli. Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala Psychological Reports, No. 414.
Freed, D. J. (1990). Auditory correlates of perceived mallet hardness for a set of recorded percussive sound events. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 87, No. 1, pp. 311-322.
Guirao, M. (1989). Perceived distance and loudness-softness functions. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 85, Supplement 1, p. S108.
Hogg, Keri (1992). The relationship between size and pitch: A developmental study. Unpublished undergraduate thesis, University of Waterloo.
Laver, J. (1980). The Phonetic Description of Voice Quality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Li, X. F., Logan, R. J. & Pastore, R. E. (1991). Perception of acoustic source characteristics: Walking sounds. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 90, No. 6, pp. 3036-3049.
Montgomery, Carol E. (1985). The perception of emotional prosody in depression. PhD dissertation, Cornell University.
Murray, I. R., & Arnott, J. L. (1993). Toward the simulation of emotion in synthetic speech: A review of the literature on human vocal emotion. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 93, No. 2, pp. 1097-1108.
Nilsonne, Asa & Sundberg, Johan. (1985). Differences in ability of musicians and nonmusicians to judge emotional state from the fundamental frequency of voice samples. Music Perception, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 507-516.
Scherer, Klaus R. (1986). Vocal affect expression: A review and a model for future research. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 99, No. 2, pp. 143-165.
Scherer, Klaus R., & Oshinsky, J. S. (1977). Cue utilization in emotion attribution from auditory stimuli. Motivation and Emotion, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 331-346.
Tartter, V. C. (1980). Happy talk: Perceptual and acoustic effects of smiling on speech. Perception & Psychophysics, Vol. 27, pp. 24-27.
Warren, H., & Verbrugge, R. R. (1984). Auditory perception of breaking and bouncing events: A case study in ecological acoustics. Journal of Experimental Psychology; Human Perception and Performance, Vol. 10, pp. 704-712.
General Literature on Emotion
Aggleton, J.P. & Passingham, R.E. (1981). Syndrome produced by lesions of the amygdala in monkeys (Macaca mulatta).Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, Vol. 95, pp. 961-977.
Anderson, K. (1987). Impulsivity and caffeine: A within and between subjects test of the Yerkes-Dodson law. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Individual Differences, Toronto, Canada.
Bagshaw, M.H., Kimble, D.P., & pribram, K.H. (1965). The GSR of monkeys during orienting and habituation and after ablation of the amygdala, hippocampus and inferotemporal cortex. Neuropsychologia Vol. 3, pp. 111-119.
Barclay, C. D., Cutting, J. E. & Kozlowski, D. M. (1978). Temporal and spatial factors in gait perception that influence gender recognition. Perception & Psychophysics, Vol. 23, pp. 145-152.
Bechara, A., Damasio, A.R., Damasio, H., & Anderson, S. (1994). Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition, Vol. 50, pp. 7-12.
Bechara, A., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A.R. (1993). Failure to respond autonomically in anticipation of future outcomes following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Society for Neuroscience, [Abstracts] Vol. 19, p. 791.
Ben-Ze'ev, Aaron (2000). The Subtlety of Emotions. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
Cacioppo, J.T., Petty, R.P. Losch, M.E., & Kim. H.S. (1986). Electromyographic activity over facial muscle regions can differentiate the valence and intensity of affective reactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 50, pp. 260-268.
Cannon, W. B. (1929). Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage. New York: Appleton (2nd ed.).
Cornelius, Randolph R. (1996). The Science of Emotions. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Cunningham, M. R. (1988). What do you do when you're happy or blue? Mood, expectancies, and behavioral interest. Motivation and Emotion, Vol. 12, pp. 309-331.
Cutting, James E. (1978). Generation of synthetic male and female walkers through manipulation of a biomechanical invariant. Perception, Vol. 7, pp. 393-405.
Cutting, J. E., Proffitt, D. R., & Kozlowski, L. T. (1978). A biomechanical invariant for gait perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology; Human Perception and Performance, Vol. 4, pp. 357-372.
Damasio, Antonio R. (1994). Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
Damasio, A.R., Tranel, D., & Damasio, H. (1991). Somatic markers and the guidance of behavior: Theory and preliminary testing. In H.S. Levin, H.M. Eisenberg, and A.L. Benton (editors), Frontal Lobe Function and Dysfunction, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 217-229.
Darwin, Charles. (1872). The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals. London: Murray.
Danly, M., & Shapiro, B. (1982). Speech prosody in Broca's aphasia. Brain and Language, Vol. 16, pp. 171-190.
Dasser, V., Ulbaek, I., & Premack, D. (1989). Perception of intention. Science, Vol. 243, pp. 365-367.
Duchene, G.-B. (1990). The Mechanism of Human Facial Expression, or an Electro-Physiological Analysis of the Expression of the Emotions. Translated by R. A. Cuthberton, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ekman, Paul (1992). Facial expressions of emotion: New findings, new questions. Psychological Science, Vol. 3, pp. 34-38.
Ekman, P., & Davidson, R.J. (1993). Voluntary smiling changes regional brain activity. Psychological Science, Vol. 4, pp. 342-345.
Ekman, P., & Friesen, W.V. (1998). Constants across culture in the face and emotion. In: Jenkins, Otaley, & Stein (eds.), Human Emotions: A Reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell, chapter 7.
Ekman, P., Levenson, R.W., & Friesen, W.V. (1983). Autonomic nervous system activity distinguishes among emotions. Science, Vol. 221, pp. 1208-1210.
Eisenberg, N. & Fabes, R. A. (1992). Emotion, regulation, and the development of social competence. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 14, pp. 119-150.
Foldi, N.S., Cicone, M., & Gardner, H. (1983). Pragmatic aspects of communication in brain damaged patients. In: Language Functions and Brain Organization, S. Segalowitz (ed.), New York: Academic Press.
Hare, R.D., & Quinn, M.J. (1971). Psychopathy and autonomic conditioning. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Vol. 77, pp. 223-235.
Ekman, Paul (1973). Cross-cultural studies of facial expressions. In P. Ekman (editor), Darwin and facial expression. New York: Academic Press, pp. 169-222.
Heilman, K.M., Scholes, R., & Watson, R.T. (1975). Auditory affective agnosia: disturbed comprehension of affective speech. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, Vol. 38, pp. 69-72.
Heilman, K.M. & Watson, R.T. (1989). Arousal and Emotions. In: F. Boller & J. Grafman (eds.) Handbook of Neuropsychology, Vol. 3, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
James, W. (1884). What is an emotion? Mind, Vol. 19, pp. 188-205.
James, W. (1890/1983). The Principles of Psychology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kozlowski, L. T., & Cutting, J. E. (1977). Recognizing the sex of a walker from a dynamic point-light display. Perception & Psychophysics, Vol. 21, pp. 575-580.
Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and Adpatation Oxford: Oxford University Press.
LeDoux, J.E. (1992). Emotion and the amygdala. In: J.P. Aggleton (ed.), The Amygdala: Neurobiological Aspects of Emotion, Memory, and Mental Dysfunction. New York: Wiley-Liss, pp. 339-351.
Miller, W.I. (1997). The Anatomy of Disgust. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Pert, Candace B. (1997). Molecules of Emotion. New York: Scribner.
Rozin, P. & Fallon, A. (1987). A perspective on disgust. Psychological Review, Vol. 94, pp. 23-41.
Rozin, P., Haidt, J. & McCauley, C. (1993). Disgust. In M. Lewis & J. Haviland (editors), Handbook of Emotions. New York: Guilford, pp. 575-594.
Sackheim, H.A., Gur, R.C., & Saucy, M. (1978). Emotions are expressed more intensely on the left side of the face. Science, Vol. 202, pp. 434-436.
Scabini, D., & Violani, C. (1982). Electrodermal responses in patients with unilateral brain damage. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, Vol. 4, pp. 143-150.
Solomon, R.C. (1995). Some notes on emotion, `east and west'. Philosophy East & West Vol. 45, No. 2, pp.171-202. Full text.
Thayer, R.E. (1978). Problem perception, optimism, and related states as a function of time of day (Diurnal rhythm) and moderate exercise: Two arousal systems in interaction. Motivation And Emotion, Vol. 11, pp. 19-36.
Thayer, R.E. (1989). The Biopsychology of Mood and Arousal. New York: Oxford University Press.
Thayer, R.E. (1996). The Origins of Everyday Moods. New York: Oxford University Press.
Thayer, R.E., Newman, J.R. & McClain, T.M. (1994). The self-regulation of mood: Strategies for changing a bad mood, raising energy, and reducing tension. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 67, pp. 910-925.
Tomkins, S.S. (1980). Affect as amplification: some modifications in theory. In: R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (editors), Emotion: Theory, Research and Experience. New York: Academic Press, pp. 141-164.
Watson, D. & Tellegen, A. (1985). Toward a consensual structure of mood. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 98, pp. 219-235.
Winner, E., & Gardner, H. (1977). Comprehension of metaphor in brain-damaged patients. Brain, Vol. 100, pp. 717-729.
Yokoyama, K., Jennings, R., Ackles, P., Hood, B.S., & Boller, F. (1987). Lack of heart rate changes during an attention-demanding task after right hemisphere lesions. Neurology, Vol. 37, pp. 624-630.
Allen, Ray and Lois Wilcken. Island Sounds in the Global City: Caribbean Popular Music and Identity in New York. New York: New York Folklore Society, 1995.
A collection of critical essays exploring the relationship between music and cultural identity in the nations most diverse urban center. Case studies include reggae, merengue, calypso, and steel pan music.
Brown, Karen. Mama Lola: A Vodou Priestess in Brooklyn. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.
A readable and vibrantly engaging ethnographic study that helps to demystify the vodou religion and explore it through the perspective of people who are deeply rooted in Haitian folk performance and religious practices. The author is especially attuned to issues of gender and power as they emerge in the music.
Knight, Roderic. Mande Music: Traditional and Modern Music of the Mandinka of Western Africa. London, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.
An ethnographic study of an African traditionthe music of the jalisthat predates the Malian empire in the 13th century and continues today in the recording studios of Paris.
Lai, T.C., and Robert Mok. The Jade Flute: The Story of Chinese Music. New York: Schocken Books, 1981.
An appealing, if somewhat condensed, introduction to Chinese music in its various philosophical, literary, and historical dimensions, with illustrations and excerpts from primary sources.
Nettl, Bruno. The Study of Ethnomusicology: Twenty-nine Issues and Concepts. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1983.
An introduction to the core ideas that continue to shape the study of ethnomusicology and its methodological and theoretical foundations, written by a veteran in the field.
Neuman, Daniel. The Life of Music in North India: The Social Organization of an Artistic Tradition. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1980.
A very readable ethnographic study of the relationship between music and society in Hindu culture.
Robertson, Carol E. Musical Repercussions of 1492. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.
A collection of essays by music scholars discussing the musical performance traditions, dances, and instruments of the Americas, organized around the themes of conquest and colonization.
Shelemay, Kay. Soundscapes: Exploring Music in a Changing World. New York, London: W.W. Norton and Company, 2001.
Designed for teaching world-music courses at the college level, this textbook organizes the study of music not by region or period, like its more conventional cousins, but by the way most people encounter itby the roles it plays in their lives and communities. With accompanying CDs, bibliographies and videographies, and sample syllabi and student projects.
Stuempfle, Stephen. The Steelband Movement: Forging of a National Art in Trinidad. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.
A complete and comprehensive historical study of the steelband movement, focusing on the historical and sociological aspects of Trinidadian music and identity.